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No. 2. ' April, 1903 





" » - .^ 

mi^ VND 

^Historical Journal 


The Author of ,4 Rab and His Friends," Dr. John Brown, of Edinburgh. By Francis 

R. Packard, M.D 77 

A Review of the London Pharmacopoeia and Dispensatory of 1654 and a Brief Retrospect of 

the Period. By Charles Farnham Collins, M.D 89 

Memorial Address on the Late Samuel Smith Purple, M.D. {Illustrated.) By Stephen 

Smith, M.D., LL.D 102 

A Brief Account of the Pennsylvania Infirmary for Diseases of the Eye and Ear, Established 

in the City of Philadelphia in the Year 1822. By Charles A. Oliver, A.M., M.D 117 

Remarks on Library Management. By Charles Perry Fisher 124 

The Boston Medical Library. {Illustrated.) By James R. ChadwJck, M.D 127 

Dusting the Library. By Grace Whiting Myers 135 

EDITORIAL — The Index Medicus, Mr. Andrew Carnegie and Medical Libraries — A Series 

of Facsimile Reprints of Medical Americana — The Book- Worm — A Word of Thanks. 137 


BOOK REVIEWS.— The Proceedings of the Charaka Club. Vol. I.— Davis* History of 
Medicine — Life and Correspondence of Henry Ingersoll Bowditch — Gould's Biographic 

Clinics 141 

NEW MEDICAL PUBLICATIONS. First Quarter of 1903 146 



WANT AND EXCHANGE LISTS. The Association of Medical Librarians 163 

Copyright 1903, by Albert T. Huntington. All rights reserved. Application made for entry at the Brooklyn, N. Y., Post-office as second-class matter 







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Vol. I April, 1903 No. 2 



Philadelphia, Penn. 

At the present time Dr. John Brown, of Edinburgh, is known 
by most readers as the author of "Rab and His Friends," and to 
some as the author of the beautiful little story of "Marjorie Flem- 
ing." In addition to these works there are, however, many other 
writings of Dr. Brown which still possess much of value and in- 
terest, especially to us as physicians, and my chief object in writ- 
ing of him has been to recall some of these to attention. The 
man himself is likewise an interesting if somewhat pathetic study, 
his life commencing with every promise for prosperity and glad- 
ness, and closing in sorrow and distress. 

John Brown was the offspring from a line of Presbyterian 
clergymen. His great grandfather, the Rev. John Brown, of 
Haddington, as he is usually known, began life as a shepherd boy 
and at the close of his career had achieved a reputation as one 
of the most learned biblical scholars in Scotland. His "Self-In- 
terpreting Bible" was long a standard work. His son, the Rev. 
John Brown, of Whitburn, was likewise a man of eminence in 
the councils of the Church, but the ecclesiastical glory of the 
family culminated in the father of the subject of this sketch, and 
it is curious to see how closely his characteristics, as sketched in 
his "Memoir" by John Cairns, are reflected in the son. The fa- 
ther's life was a somewhat stormy one. He was an ordained min- 
ister of the "Burgher" branch of the "Secession" Church, which 
subsequently became the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland. 

♦Read at a meeting of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Historical Club on 
January 12, 1903. 

78 1 ram [g R. PACKARD, 

His first charge was in Lanarkshire, but in 1852 he was tra 
ferred to Edinburgh, and some years afterwards the congr< 
tion over which he presided in said to have been 01 it «»i the lar- 
gest in that devout city. It was during this time that one of 
its periodic waves of theological dissension rent the Presbyterian 
Church of Scotland. The Rev. Dr. Brown was too eminent a 
theologian and too good a fighter not to be drawn into the vor- 
tex. He was tried by the synod of his Church for heresy in 
1845, an( i was acquitted only after a bitter fight. 

His son, the author of "Rab and His Friends" was born on 
September 22, 1810, at Biggar, in Lanarkshire. In his "Letter 
to John Cairns, D.D.," he gives us some insight into his child- 
hood and youth. Until the family went to Edinburgh, his father 
gave the children all the education which they received, and a 
most excellent education it was. Biggar was nothing but a small 
country town, but there was nothing provincial about its spirit- 
ual guide and some of his parishioners. Brown tells us how his 
father studied the German theologians ; he writes : "After my 
mother's death I slept with him ; his bed was in his study, a 
small room, with a very small grate, and I remember very well 
his getting those fat, shapeless, spongy German books, as if one 
would sink in them, and be bogged in their bibulous, unsized 
paper ; and watching him as he impatiently cut them up and 
dived into them in his rapid, eclectic way, tasting them and drop- 
ping for my play such a lot of soft, large, curled bits from the 
paper-cutter, leaving the edges all shaggy. He never came to 
bed when I was awake, which was not to be wondered at ; but 
I can remember often awaking far on in the night or morning, 
and seeing that keen, beautiful, intense face bending over these 
Rosenmullers, and Ernestis, and Storrs, and Kuinoels — the fire 
out and the gray dawn peering through the window ; and when 
he heard me move, he would speak to me in the foolish words of 
endearment my mother was wont to use, and come to bed, and 
take me, warm as I was, into his cold bosom." 

Another man of learning in the village, who exerted a pow- 
erful influence over the boy was a Mr. Robert Johnston, who 
had married his aunt. Of this remarkable man, Brown says : 
"A shopkeeper in that remote little town, he not only intermeddled 
fearlessly with all knowledge, but mastered more than many 
practised university men do in their own lines. Mathematics, as- 
tronomy, and especially what may be called selenology, or the 
science of the moon, and the higher geometry and physics ; He- 


brew, Sanscrit, Greek and Latin, to the veriest rigors of prosody 
and meter; Spanish and Italian, German, French, and any odd 
language that came in his way; all these he knew more or less 
thoroughly, and acquired them in the most leisurely, easy, cool 
sort of way, as if he grazed and browsed perpetually in the field 
of letters, rather than made formal meals, or gathered for any 
ulterior purpose, his fruits, his roots and his nuts — he especially 
liked mental nuts — much less bought them from anyone." What 
an example of the learning so often found in the most provincial 
neighborhoods of Scotland, partly a result, and partly a cause of 
that eager desire which exists in the bosoms of many of the very 
poorest Scots that their children should receive a university edu- 
cation, a desire so eager in many instances that it amounts to a 
passion ! The preparatory education which the Rev. John Brown 
gave his son was of that solid, material kind, which subsequently 
enabled him to obtain the fullest value from his classical courses 
at the High School and University, and qualified him to take a 
scholarly pleasure in the perusal of the classics throughout his 

There are few more beautiful tributes by any son to a father 
than the "Letter to John Cairns, D.D." and there are few lit- 
erary remains which give us as clear an insight into the sources 
of the characteristics of their author. We see all the way through 
the description of his childhood at the little country manse, the 
development of the quiet, strong, lovable nature of the writer and 
also his tendency to meditative melancholy, which, as he writes of 
his father was "A condition under which he viewed all things and 
which quickened and intensified his sense of the suffering of the 
world and of the profound seriousness and mystery in the midst 
of which we live and die." 

When he was twelve years old his father removed to Edin- 
burgh. After graduating from the Edinburgh High School, the 
boy graduated from the Collegiate Department of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, and subsequently from the Medical School, receiving his 
degree of M.D. in 1833. 

He was apprenticed, as was then the usual custom, during 
his medical studies to Mr. Syme, of whom he wrote afterwards 
that he was "the best blessing of my professional and one of the 
best of my personal life," and he elsewhere referred to him as 
"our greatest clinical teacher and wisest surgeon." 

Syme was the surgeon who figures in "Rab and His Friends," 
and throughout Brown's writings there are constant references 

80 11. KAKU. 

to him and to his work, betides an obituary notice of him writ- 
ten shortly after his death, Syme was not only a cousin of Lit- 
ton, the great Edinburgh surgeon, but also the father-in-law of 
Sir Joseph Lister, the discoverer of antisepsis. Until Synie's 
death, he- and his former student were the closest of friends, and 
through this friendship with Syme, Brown was brought into clott 
intimacy with the very best men in the profession in Edinburgh. 

In passing, we might call attention to the fact mentioned by 
Brown that it was Dr. Syme who discovered the solubility of 
caoutchouc in coal tar, and described it in a letter to the Annals of 
Philosophy for August, 1818, and that it was after this date that 
Macintosh took out his patent for the process which has since 
made his name known in all quarters of the globe. 

Brown walked the wards in the City Hospital, and has left us 
in his most famous work a glimpse of his life as house surgeon. 
He subsequently served as assistant to a surgeon at Chatham, 
and during this period there was an outbreak of cholera in the 
town in which the young surgeon's courage and fidelity to his 
duty is said to have attracted the notice of Charles Dickens. He 
did not remain long away from Edinburgh, however, as the pros- 
pects of the son of his father were too bright in that city to be 
idly cast away, and soon after his return he succeeded in acquir- 
ing a very large practice. 

His earnest work and lovable nature won him hosts of friends, 
and his medical skill soon procured for him a high reputation 
as a diagnostician. His bent lay entirely in a clinical direction, 
and we have no record of any strictly scientific work which he 
performed ; in fact, as we will shortly notice, he did not appre- 
ciate the vast importance of the new era then dawning for scien- 
tific medicine. He was of a social disposition, and as years went 
on, his house in Rutland street was the scene of many social gath- 
erings. He is said, by the author of a little memoir of his life, to 
have known "everyone in Edinburgh except a few newcomers, 
and to walk on Princes street with him was to realize that this 
was a literal fact. He generally drove, but when he walked it 
was in a leisurely fashion, as if not unwilling to be arrested. To 
some he spoke for a moment, and, though only for a moment, 
he seemed to send them on their way rejoicing; to others he 
nodded, to some he merely gave a smile in passing, but in each 
case it was a distinctive recognition, and felt to be such." A 
gentleman who frequently saw him in Edinburgh tells me that 
he was a very big, bluff man, with a frank, open manner. The 


first time he met him was at a musicale in Edinburgh, where a 
young lady, a relative of Brown's, played Upon the piano. Brown 
listened attentively until the performance was at an end, then 
turning abruptly to a lady who was sitting with my friend, he 
said, "Miss should study Roman history." It was evi- 
dent that the meaning of his remark was not plain to his hear- 
ers. Instead of immediately explaining what he meant, he said 
to my friend, "What studies do you pursue at the High School?" 
When told "chemistry, Latin, Greek, etc.," he said, "Do you ex- 
pect to be a chemist?" "No," was the reply. "Yet your knowl- 
edge of chemistry and other extraneous subjects will be of great 
value to you in anything you may undertake from the breadth 
of mind, and the training they bring into your life ; so also would 
Miss 's rendering of music be improved by a broader pre- 
liminary training." Again and again we find Brown recurring 
to this thought in his writings. 

He was a good classical scholar and took a delight in keep- 
ing up his acquaintanceship with the old authors of Greece and 
Rome. His writings are full almost to pedantry of quotations 
from them. His interest in literature and art was such that 
whenever a rare engraving, an ancient book, or anything of that 
nature was unearthed in Edinburgh, it was pretty sure to be 
brought by the finder to his house "just that Dr. Brown might 
see it." But the pre-eminent trait of his character was affection, 
and that is the keynote to all his life; he not only loved others, 
but inspired a corresponding affection in them. It is beautiful to 
read the notices which were written at the time of his death. The 
tone prevailing in all of them is one of personal loss, and many 
anecdotes are brought forward to instance the sweetness of his 

One who loved him very much wrote, shortly after his death, 
"In trying to describe anyone, it is usual to speak of his manner; 
but that word applied to Dr. Brown seems almost unnatural, for 
manner is considered a thing more or less consciously acquired. 
In going to see him friends never knew what style of greeting 
was in store for them, for he had no formal method ; each thing 
he said or did was an exact reflection of the moment's mood, and 
so was a true expression of his character." 

In this same little sketch of his characteristics from which I 
have drawn very freely, there is an amusing story of his first 
meeting with the lady who wrote it. She was a school girl friend 
of his sister's at the time, and he had offered to drive her home 

82 i RAKCI8 i<- i i>. 

from his sister's house to Edinburgh in lii^ doctor's carriage. 
"We soon reached said carriage, and mj foot was on the step, 
when again my arm was seized, and this time, 'Are you a 
homeopathist ?' was demanded. I stoutly answered 'Yes,' for I 
thought 1 must not sail or drive under false colors. 'Indeed! 
they go outside,' was his reply. This was too much for me; so, 
shaking myself free I said, 'No, they don't, they can walk.' He 
smiled, looked me rapidly all over from head to foot, and then 
said in the same quiet voice, 'For that I'll take you in' — and 
in I went." 

Brown's devotion to this sister of his was most beautiful. 
For the last sixteen years of his life she kept house for him at 
his home in Rutland street, and their home was the point around 
which much that was best in the social and intellectual life in 
Edinburgh centered. She took the deepest interest in all of his 
affairs, and during the last few melancholy years did her best to 
buoy him up and prevent his yielding to the despondency of 
which he became the prey. It was to her encouragement that 
we are indebted for much of his literary activity. 

It was not until he was 48 years of age that he published 
"Rab and His Friends." The little sketch achieved immediate 
popularity and resulted in further literary activity on the part 
of its author. In 1858 he gathered together a number of essays 
which he had written, and published them under the title of 
"Horae Subsecivae," which has been happily translated "Brown 
Studies." A second series was published in 1861, and was soon 
followed by an American edition under the title of "Spare Hours." 

In 1874, his Alma Mater conferred upon him the degree of 
LL.D. in recognition of his literary attainments. 

He had begun to show symptoms of mental failure some years 
previously, suffering from repeated attacks of melancholia, 
which, as years went on, increased in frequency and duration. 
Towards the latter years of his life he received a pension from 
the Civil List, and his friends raised a large subscription for his 
support. In 1 88 1 he seemed to recover his cheerful disposition 
and a large portion of his mental activity, and so much did his 
condition improve that in 1882 he published a third collection of 
his writings under the title of "John Leech and Other Papers." 
The improvement was but temporary, however, and he soon re- 
lapsed. He died from pleurisy on May II, 1882. 

In considering the literary works of Dr. Brown, let us first 
notice those upon which his fame now chiefly rests. Of these 

THE author OF "RAB and ins FRIENDS." 83 

"Rab and His Friends" easily holds first place. It is a trite say- 
ing that in English literature there are hut few short stories to 
compare with those to he found in the French language, hut we 
would defy any literature to produce a more complete little clas- 
sic than "Rab and His Friends." For simplicity, sincerity and 
obvious truthfulness; for deep pathos and human sympathy; for 
pure humor and insight into human nature, this simple little story 
is almost unexcelled. 

Rab is a dog, and the story concerns the carter to whom he 
belongs, and his wife. From the fight between Rab and the Bull- 
Terrier on the first page to the last page describing the faithful 
sheep dog's funeral, every paragraph is pregnant with interest. 
Take the description of Ailie sitting on a sack filled with straw, 
with her husband's plaid around her, with his big coat with its 
large white metal buttons over her feet, waiting to see the doc- 
tor at the hospital : "I never saw a more unforgetable face — pale, 
serious, lonely, delicate, sweet, without being at all what we 
would call fine. She looked sixty, and had on a mutch, white 
as snow, with its black ribbon ; her silvery, smooth hair setting 
of! her dark gray eyes — eyes such as one only sees twice or 
thrice in a lifetime, full of suffering, full also of the overcom- 
ing of it : her eyebrows black and delicate, and her mouth firm, 
patient and contented, which few mouths ever are/' Her hus- 
band James, with his tender interest and loving care is splendid, 
and as for Rab, the mastiff, with his "large, heavy, menacing, 
combative, somber, honest countenance," there is not a dog like 
him in all literature. Ailie has a cancer of the breast ; a sur- 
geon examines it and tells her of the absolute necessity for its re- 
moval. Then follows the description of the operation which, aside 
from the beauty of its language, is interesting because of its con- 
trast with our modern ideas of such occasions. 

"The operating theater is crowded ; much talk and fun, and 
all the cordiality and stir of youth. The surgeon with his staff 
of assistants is there. In comes Ailie ; one look at her quiets and 
abates the eager students. That beautiful old woman is too much 
for them ; they sit down, and are dumb, and gaze at her. These 
rough boys feel the power of her presence. She walks in quickly, 
but without haste; dressed in her mutch, her neckerchief, her 
white dimity short-gown, her black bombazeen petticoat, showing 
her white worsted stockings and her carpet shoes. Behind her 
was James with Rab. James sat down in the distance, and took 
that huge and noble head between his knees. Rab looked per- 

84 I- ram (8 k r H K m<d. 

plexed and dangerous; forever cocking his ear and dropping it 

as fast. 

'"Ailie stepped up on a seat, and laid herself on the table, as 
her friend, the Burgeon, told her; arranged herself, gave a rapid 
look at James, shut her eyes, rested herself on me, and took my 
hand. The operation was at once begun ; it was necessarily slow ; 
and chloroform — one of God's best gifts to his suffering children 
— was then unknown. The surgeon did his work. The pale face 
showed its pain, but was still and silent. Rab's soul was work- 
ing within him ; he saw that something strange was going on, 
blood flowing from his mistress, and she suffering; his ragged 
ear was up, and importunate ; he growled and gave now and then 
a sharp, impatient yelp ; he would have liked to have done some- 
thing to that man. But James had him firm, and gave him a 
glower from time to time, and an intimation of a possible kick. 

"It is over ; she is dressed, steps gently and decently down from 
the table, looks for James ; then turning to the surgeon and stu- 
dents, she curtsies — and in a low, clear voice, begs their par- 
don if she has behaved ill. The students — all of us — wept like 
children ; the surgeon happed her up carefully — and resting on 
James and me, Ailie went to her room, Rab following." 

For some days Ailie does well. On the fourth she is 
worse, and the description of her last hours is too pathetic for 
quotation. The book has gone through many editions and been 
translated into many tongues, and I have recently been told by 
a publisher that it is one of the best selling reprints of small books 
which is published. Brown wrote other canine memoirs, but 
none of them ever approached "Rab" in interest or beauty. 

With the exception of "Rab and His Friends," Brown never 
wrote anything more beautiful than "Marjorie Fleming." The 
heroine was a little girl who died of meningitis when not quite 
eight years old, but who will live forever in Brown's pages as the 
child-friend of Sir Walter Scott. Brown's sketch is written with 
such thorough delight in his subject, such appreciation of the 
humor and pathos of the quaint little girl who died so many years 
ago, that it fairly carries one away. It is chiefly a running com- 
mentary on her diary and letters. Scott said of her: "She's the 
most extraordinary creature I ever met with, and her repeating of 
Shakespeare overpowers me as nothing else does." This poor lit- 
tle girl could repeat Shakespeare by the hour, and her innocent 
little letters are full of references to the most incongruous literary 
productions. Thus she writes : ' 'Tom Jones' and Gray's 'Elegy 


in a Country Churchyard' are both excellent, and much spoken 
of by both sexes, particularly by the men." "Thomson is a beau- 
tiful author and poet, but nothing 1 to Shakespeare, of which I 
have a little knowledge. 'Macbeth' is a very pretty composition, 
but an awful one. 'The Newgate Calender' is very instructive." 
The poor little thing's religiosity is a strongly marked char- 
acteristic. Imagine a child of seven writing "I am very sorry 
to say that I forgot God — that is to say I forgot to pray to-day, 
and Isabella told me that I should be thankful that God did not 
forget me — if he did, O what would become of me — I must go 
to unquenchable fire, and if I was tempted to sin — how could I 
resist it — O, I will never do it again — no, no — if I can help it." 
Again, "My religion is greatly falling off because I don't pray 
with so much attention when I am saying my prayers, and my 
character is lost among the Braehead people. I hope I will be 
religious again, as for regaining my character, I despair of it." 

This all sounds very priggish, but with the other child-like 
extracts from her dairy and letters, and accompanied by the lov- 
ing commentary of Dr. Brown, the pathos is fairly overwhelming. 
She was a jolly little thing, and wrote evidently from the full- 
ness of her little heart. We can only feel that of all precocious 
children, little "Marjorie Fleming" was the most loving and lova- 
ble, and that in her precocity there was nothing of offense. 

To the medical man the most interesting volume of the "Horae 
Subsecivae" is that containing the essay on Locke and Syden- 
ham, and a number of other articles on medical men and topics. 
In his introduction, Brown gives vent to some of his pet views 
and opinions upon which he enlarges at length in the essays which 
follow. Among these ideas are several of great interest. One 
topic upon which he is particularly strong in his expressions is 
what he terms "Man-midwifery." He was bitterly opposed to 
the practice of obstetrics by men, believing that such cases should 
be attended by women who could be especially trained for the 
purpose, and should receive good compensation for their ser- 
vices. He writes : "Some of my best and most valued friends 
are honored members of this branch ; but I believe all the real 
good they can do, and the real evils they can prevent in these 
cases, would be attained, if — instead of attending to their own 
ludicrous loss of time, health, sleep and temper, some 200 cases 
of delivery every year, the immense majority of which are nat- 
ural, and require no interference, but have nevertheless wasted 
not a little of their life, their patience and their understanding — 


they had, as I would alwayi have them to do, and as anj well 
educated resolute doctor of medicine- ought to be able to do, con- 
fined themselves to giving their advice- and assistance to the mid- 
wife when she needed it." 

In the case of the country doctor, he was especially anxious 
that routine midwifery cases should not be considered as an es- 
sential part of his duty. His idea was that in every hamlet there 
was at least one woman who could be trained in such a way as 
to be perfectly competent to handle ordinary cases, and enough 
educated to know when she should call on the services of the 

He was very much opposed to specialism in medicine, vehe- 
mently urging- that such methods of practice broke up the old 
customary relation between the family physician and his patients. 
Women doctors were anathema marantha to him, and homeop- 
athy fell in the same category. 

A topic upon which he loved to discourse was what he termed 
the hurtfulness of many of the advances in scientific medicine 
which he had witnessed during his own professional career. He 
believed that many of the instruments which came into vogue, es- 
pecially after Laennec's studies in auscultation, had been really 
injurious to the education of the physician rather than of service 
to it. He quotes with approval a remarkable saying of Dr. Syme 
"that during the last 36 years the practice of medicine has upon 
the whole gone backwards, and that year after year it is still 
going backwards." Brown makes a strong distinction between 
the practice of medicine and the study of medicine, conceding 
that diagnosis had been greatly advanced by the external methods 
of auscultation, by the advancement in microscopy, chemical an- 
alysis, etc., yet he felt that the tactus eruditus and the sagacity of 
the physician had suffered greatly by his too frequent reliance 
upon these external aids. Dr. Sellar had published, in the Edin- 
burgh Medical and Surgical Journal, a paper entitled "On the 
Signification of Fact in Medicine, and on the Hurtful Effects of 
the Incautious Use of such Modern Sources of Fact as the Mi- 
croscope, the Stethoscope, Chemical Analysis, Statistics, etc." At 
the present time it would seem as though the publication of an 
article of this nature would require considerable courage on the 
part of its author, yet we find Dr. Brown recommending its pe- 
rusal, and quoting from it. It is curious to note the bitterness 
with which Syme, Sellar and Brown wrote on this topic. 

We are all nowadays more or less familiar with the life of 

i hi: AUTHOR OF "kab and his FRIENDS." 87 

the Scotch country doctor through the biography of our friend 
MacLure, by Ian Maclaren, hut lie has not been the first to re- 
ceive justice at the hands of a fellow countryman. Walter Scott 
in his little read novel "The Surgeon's Daughter," depicts in the 
character of ( iideon Gray a beautiful example of this over-worked, 
under-paid, and most beloved class of men, who, as he says, was 
worse fed and harder wrought than anyone else in the parish, un- 
less it were his horse. Dr. Brown was greatly stirred by a corre- 
spondence in the columns of the Scotsman in which the country 
doctors were held up to abuse and ridicule on one side, and on 
the other, were warmly defended by their partisans. Brown con- 
tributed a short paper to the controversy under the title of "Our 
Gideon Grays," in which he wrote stoutly in defense of the coun- 
try practitioner. In it he presents some remarkable facts con- 
cerning country doctors which were elicited in 1846 by an asso- 
ciation of medical men in Edinburgh, organized in order to ex- 
press their sympathy with their country brethren, in the remote 
districts of Scotland, and to gather as much information as pos- 
sible regarding their attendance upon the poor of the districts in 
which they practiced. The information which they collected was 
buried in the appendix of the first report to the Board of Super- 
vision, but the astounding revelations which it made, should be 
promulgated to the world. The questions were directed particu- 
larly to the matter of medical attendance upon the parochial poor ; 
out of 325 returns 94 had received some remuneration for attend- 
ance and outlay. In one instance this consisted of three shillings 
for twelve years' attendance on seventy constant and thirteen oc- 
casional paupers. In another instance the doctor attended 400 pau- 
pers for eight years and never received any recompense for his 
skill, his time and his drugs. 

Dr. Brown was fond of emphasizing what he called the "Dis- 
tinction between the science, and the art or craft, or as it was 
often called, the cunning of medicine," and he loved to expatiate 
upon the value of the "middle propositions," a term which he 
borrowed from Plato's statement that "Particulars are infinite, 
and the higher generalities give no sufficient direction in medicine ; 
but the pith of all sciences, that which makes the artisan differ 
from the expert, is in the middle propositions." He considered 
that Plato meant by this the gift of uniting a knowledge of the 
science of medicine with a capacity to utilize the fruits of that 
science. He held that the natural consequence of the predomi- 
nance in his time of what he termed the merely scientific clement. 


that the elder mcmbcri of the profession were too much 
pushed aside by the younger men. He quotes with great approv- 
al Louis' preface to the first edition of his "Researches on 
Phthisis." "Few persons are free from delusive mental tenden- 
cies, especially in youth, interfering with true observation; and 
1 am of the opinion that generally speaking we ought to place 
less reliance on cases collected by very young men ; and above all 
not to trust the task of accumulating facts to them exclusively." 

He strongly advocated the apprenticeship system in the study 
of medicine, holding that it did away with much of the evils of 
class teaching and learning from books. Particularly was he in- 
flamed against examinations in the course of medical studies, 
holding that such methods gave no true insight into the amount 
of skill in medical science possessed by the pupil, and were gen- 
erally merely tests of his memory. He has a happy quotation 
from Epictetus upon this point which is so apt that I am sure 
you will pardon its repetition. Epictetus says that the system of 
examination is ''As if sheep, after they have been feeding, should 
present their shepherds with the very grass itself which they had 
cropped and swallowed, to show how much they had eaten, in- 
stead of concocting it into wool and milk." 

Two of his short papers are of especial interest to teachers of 
medicine, one entitled "Education through the Senses," and the 
other "With Brains, Sir." In "Education through the Senses" he 
dilates with great approval upon the suggestion of Dr. Adams of 
Banchory, that ornithology should be taught as a branch of med- 
ical education. He believed that the addition of a branch of nat- 
ural science, in the stricter sense, to the medical curriculum, would 
cultivate the habit of observation, and would be of inestimable 
value to the student in pursuing his more strictly professional 
studies. The paper entitled "With Brains, Sir," is written in 
his most characteristic and happiest vein. In it he expatiates upon 
his objections to the cramming system of medical education, strik- 
ing the keynote of his subject most happily by the statement that 
he "did not think it was necessary that everybody should know 
everything, but he did think it was essential for every man, when 
his turn came to be able to do something." 

As I have stated my main reason for writing of Dr. Brown 
has been to recall some of his less known writings to the atten- 
tion of the profession. In his time they were widely read, and al- 
though his views met with great opposition, they nevertheless 
were given the respect that is ever due to the frankly spoken 


thoughts of at! honest man of ability. They seem to us in reading 

them over, to reproduce with photographic exactness the nature 
of the man. He was profoundly emotional, almost hysterical. He 
allowed his personal prejudices to color his views upon all topics, 
and he was fond of using strong expressions to clothe his senti- 
ments when he voiced them. Although, as can be seen, many of 
his views were erratic or even absurd, nevertheless, his essays 
abound in practical suggestions and thoughts which are most 

I am fully aware I have trespassed very greatly upon your 
patience in the matter of quotations, but I cannot refrain from 
giving you, in closing, the paragraph in which Dr. Brown sums 
up the qualifications of a physician. "The prime qualifications 
of a physician may be summed up in the words Capax, Perspicax, 
Sagax, Efficax ; Capax — there must be room to receive, and ar- 
range and keep knowledge; Perspicax — senses and perceptions, 
keen, accurate, and immediate, to bring in materials from all 
sensible things ; Sagax — a central power of knowing what is 
what, and what it is worth, of choosing and rejecting, of judg- 
ing; and finally, Efficax — the will and the way — the power to 
turn all the other three — capacity, perspicacity, sagacity, to ac- 
count, in the performance of the thing in hand, and thus render- 
ing back to the outer world, in a new and useful form, what you 
have received from it." 


New York City. 

It is not without some hesitation and misgiving that the ven- 
ture is made of presenting to this society a subject not in the line 
of an endeavor to bring newer topics of a useful quality to your 
attention. Still it is not altogether amiss to look back at our pro- 
fession in one of its past periods. Though for advancement, it is 
true, we would better judge and study the tree that is growing, 
and one that gives a promise of bearing a useful fruit, rather than 
fallen timber or a bush with seared leaves, yet it should be remem- 
bered that the fallen timber we step over and consider an obstruc- 

*Read before the Therapeutic Club, Dec. 20, 1902. 


tion in our path of progress in tunes past was rich in foliage and 

gave comfort to those who sought knowledge in its shade. 

Why the middle of the seventeenth century should come to my 
mind is easily answered. It so happens that a book of that time, 
the London Pharmacopeia, is at hand, and it bears a relation to 
those times, as does our pharmocopoeia to our day. The very 
translation itself (which the book is) brought forth much com- 
ment then; enough even to cause the medical men of those days to 
pour out many criticisms of the venture, and it gives us an insight 
into the existing feelings and the history of that time. 

Though not even belonging to this period (the middle of the 
seventeenth century) it is interesting to note that the divisions of 
the branches of medicine were established nearly a hundred years 
previous. The priest, in the early ages, was the general practi- 
tioner, and the barbers, who wielded the knife for the comfort and 
ritual of the priests, became their servants and handy men, making 
the salves, dressing wounds and using the barber knife when it 
was deemed best. This intimate assistantship and association with 
the priest explains in a great measure the prominence given the 
barber, and why he obtained the dignity of being allied to incor- 
porated bodies of surgeons. 

Surgeons, as such, were established in 1512, but not until the 
reign of George the Second, in 1745, did they exist as separate 
from the barbers. It was brought about by its being well recog- 
nized that the barber, an inferior type of intellectuality, yet strong 
in numbers, hindered greatly the progress of their confreres, the 

The charter of the Royal College of Surgeons was granted in 

The College of Physicians was founded in the early part of 
the sixteenth century (1518). 

A license or diploma to practice physic before this was obtained 
from the Bishop of London and the Dean of St. Paul's, and it 
seems that a proper money consideration was the basis, though 
probably some form of recommendation as to one's qualification 
was taken into account. The Bishop of London clothed with such 
power, it followed that princes of the church in other sees issued 
the same favor in their dioceses. 

"Upon the foundation of the Royal College of Physicians in 
London" (Wadd says) "its privileges and immunities were as 
ample as they could desire, as large as a king could grant and as 
lasting as subsequent acts of Parliament could make them. And, 


in mull, there have been wise and sagacious politicians who have 
thought that the powers with which that learned body was invested 
wire greater than any body corporate in a country famous for 
liberty should ever have been entrusted with." 

The men who founded the College of Physicians were, many 
(A them, scholars who had secured their degree or license from 
foreign universities, and one, Dr. Ferdinand de Victoria, was a 
foreigner by birth. Italy for the most part furnished the medical 
learning and intellect to start such a powerful school. Dr. Thomas 
Linacre was its first president. About the same time, also, the 
apothecary was recognized ; his status was not very definite. The 
physician often compounded his own mixtures; and on the other 
hand the apothecary invented potions more or less secret, which 
he sold for various ailments and as charms, in fact, not unlike 
to-day, though in older times mysterious influences were claimed. 
When the College of Physicians was founded the right was 
granted to them to inspect the shops and drugs therein which the 
apothecary had for sale, and the compounder of drugs was com- 
pelled by law to dispense the prescription sent to him by the 

A few words should be said of astrology and astronomy. In 
previous ages astrology and a certain amount of necromancy and 
black art were more or less allied with the study of disease : 
mysterious incantations, secret powders prepared under solar and 
stellar influence and administered when the signs of the heavens 
corresponded — these were some of the superstitious phases which 
found credulous followers even among the more intelligent peo- 
ples. This, of course, was in a period when the teachings of 
Galen and Hippocrates were being neglected. 

Astronomy, though, held sway much longer, and a certain 
amount of knowledge of the cyclic influence of the seasons and 
phases of planets was required for an entrance examination to the 
College of Physicians, for herbs and roots were richer in their 
active principles according to seasons, diurnal and nocturnal in- 

At this time astrology was fashionable, a pastime of the gentle- 
men and ladies of the court, and one's actions and journeyings 
were governed by the forecast of the horoscope. Crystal gazing, 
producing hypnotic spells, told many secrets. The physician of 
the more learned type of that day had put such fallacy aside ; he 
nevertheless clung to tradition and did look to varying effects of 
his physic according to the map of the heavens. Such ideas were 


rapidly dying OUt. Who can deny that even to-day among the 
rant kmneii certain aUSpidotlfl influences are nut suiight ? 

Even Nicholas Culpepper, who did much to break down these 

bars to progress, called himself an astrologer, but the name had 

of the old meaning. He was rather an astronomer, in that 

he dosed his patients with drugs matching the star in ascendency, 

as he tells us in the preface to his book. 

These brief remarks on the branches of medicine antedate the 
period we are considering, but they have enough bearing and his- 
torical interest to permit the brief mention. 

To come closer to the middle of the seventeenth century and 
taking as the pivot the book under discussion, many strange 
and even almost amusing facts present themselves, as well as 
historical events in medicine. It was a time when medicine of the 
dark ages had ceased ; though the physician and surgeon had taken 
up the science where Galen left off, still the period which was 
more of a direct forerunner of our own times had hardly begun. 

The Pharmacopoeia was in the hands of the College of 
Physicians, and their first edition was published in 1618, some 
years before this translation, for the original was, of course, in 
Latin. It was not only a pharmacopoeia in the strict sense of the 
word, but also a dispensatory and a work on therapeutics then 
sanctioned by the honorable body. It evidently was closely and 
zealously guarded, to the uninitiated practically a sealed book, 
until 1649, or twenty years after the first standard Pharmacopoeia, 
when Nicholas Culpepper brought himself into prominence and 
gave to the public A Physicall Directory or a Translation of the 
London Dispensatory. 

If we stop to think of the jealousy, secrecy and mystery of the 
medical arts of those days in the hands of a few you can well 
imagine what a storm of indignation and vituperation such an act 
would excite — their very vade mecum laid bare in simple English, 
in the grasp of the ordinary licensed leech, even placed in the 
hands of the layman. 

The following extract (Mercurias Pragmaticus, No. 21, 1649) 
of a tirade against the author will give you an example of the 
invective : 

''This book/' it says, "done (very filthily) into English by one 
"Nicholas Culpepper who commenced the several degrees of In- 
"dependency, Brownisme, Anabaptisme ; admitted himself to John 
"Goodwin's schoole (of all ungodlinesse) in Coleman Street; 
"after that he turned seeker Manifestarian, and now he is arrived 


"at the battlement of an absolute atheist and by two yeeres lalxmr 

"hath Gallimawfred the apothecaries hook into Nonsense mixing 
"every receipt therein with some scruples at least of rebellion or 
"atheisme besides the dangers of DOVSOning mens bodies. And 
"(to supply his drunkenness and leachery with a thirty shilling 
"reward ) endeavoured to bring- into obloquy the famous societies 
"of apothecaries and chirurgeons." 

Another later reference (1652) to the author speaks of his 
home as "a Farm in Spittelfields where all the knickknacks of 
astrology are exposed to open sale." 

Anger and disgust were no doubt the incentives for such 
criticism, for Culpepper's translation, we are told, was accurate 
and truthful, and he claims to hold in respect the members of the 
College of Physicians. Undoubtedly the closeness of their cor- 
poration may have prompted him, for though a learned man and 
one endeavoring to practice his profession with all honesty of pur- 
pose and method, yet he was one who took an interest in all worthy 
new movements and had an abhorrence for secrecy and mystery 
when so understood by him. 

The above references to Culpepper's following false gods is 
not without interest to us. Anabaptism in England never revealed 
anything like the importance or fanaticism of that body under 
John of Leyden in Germany, with their subsequent licentiousness. 
John Goodwin, as non-conformer and preacher, may have found 
a follower in Culpepper. The preacher, if my memory serves 
me, was a frequenter of Gidding, that peaceful home of an early 
colony of Puritans of the purest type, and if welcome among them 
the finger of scorn cannot be pointed to him who follows such 
teachings. It would give the lie direct to the charge of drunken- 
ness or atheism. 

Though Culpepper's translation evoked so much criticism, the 
sale and popularity of the book was such that it carried it through 
five editions in the same number of years. The sixth edition was 
renamed the Pharmacopoeia Londinensis ; or the London Dis- 
pensatory, and on the title page we read : "Further adorned by 
the Studies and collections of the fellows now living of the said 

Several additions are made, notes inserted by the translator, 
but always in brackets. The properties of the simple drugs are 
given, also the "Vertues and use of Compounds," signed "Nich. 
Culpepper, Student in Physic and astrology ; living in Spittle- 
fields near London." 

94 CH UU i 5 i UlN H \m COLLI 

It is a cop> i>t the edition "Printed by Peter Cole, 1654" I 
describe, and may interest you by picking out here and there a 
few Statements. Not unlike our publishers to-day, the first few 
pages after the title page are taken up by advertising the other 
works to be had at the printer's book shop, Peter Cole's, many of 
them works by the same author. Though the translation is the 
thought of the College, yet, either in italics or brackets Culpepper 
explains his meaning, or, rather, interpretations, of that learned 
body and says: "Although I did what I could throughout the 
whole Book to express myself in such language as might be under- 
stood by all and therefore avoided terms of art as much as might 
be, it being the task of the College to write only to the learned 
and the Nurslings of Appolo, but for myself to do my country 
good ; which is the centre all my lines tend to and I desire should 
terminate in." 

The general directions preceding the materia medica proper 
has an analysis of the virtues of the body of man, an endeavor, I 
presume, to explain according to the light of that day points of 
simple physiology as then understood. "The scope," he says, "of 
this discourse is to preserve in soundness vigor and acuity the 
mind and understanding of man, to strengthen and preserve the 
body in health, to teach a man to be an able coartificer or helper of 
nature, to withstand and expel diseases." We see many of the old 
methods of judging the pathology and physiological status of the 
body in these pages. 

Virtue procreative is put first in order, "for nature regards 
not only conservation of itself but to beget its like and conserve 
its species," in other words, self-preservation and transmission. 
"The seat of this," he says, "is in the members of generation and 
is governed principally by the influence of Venus. It is aug- 
mented and increased by the strength of Venus, by her herbs, 
roots, trees and minerals. Observe the hours and medicine of 
Venus to fortify." This shows us a good example of the above 
reference to astronomy and astrology, the medicamenta being 
allied to a planet and the advice to administer according to the 
planet's phases. Vital, natural virtues and humors are displayed 
more or less at length. Melancholy, under the head of humors, 
might be mentioned. It evidently had another meaning than in 
our day, being an attribute of a man corresponding to our serious, 
logical, intellectual temperament. He defines it as "the sediment 
of blood, cold and dry in quality, fortifying the rententive faculty 
and memory, makes men sober, solid and staid, fit for study, staies 


the unbridled toyes and fooleries of lustful blood, staies the wan- 
dering thoughts and reduceth them home to the centre. It is a 
grave counsellor to the whole body, its receptacle is the spleen and 
it is governed by Saturn." 

If we should stop to analyze this definition it is strange to 
notice how many of our English expressions to-day, in judging 
such qualities in man, take their origin from that interpretation. 

New ideas in those times seemed to have been less rapidly 
assimilated than now. It is somewhat surprising to note that 
Culpepper in his book clings to the older idea of the circulation of 
the blood. He speaks of the blood generated from meat (as food) 
as finding a receptacle in the veins and by them carried to various 
parts of the body. 

William Harvey, twenty-five years before (1628) had given to 
the world his discovery of the circulation, and nearly two hundred 
years before (1485) Lanfranc had distinguished the difference 
between a wounded artery and a wounded vein. It is well worth 
mentioning to you that William Harvey read to the medical world 
his discovery of the circulation as one of the Lumley lecturers, 
which lectureship was founded in the latter part of the sixteenth 
century (1584) by Lord Lumley and Dr. Richard Caldwell, to 
this day called the Lumlein Lectures, and it is recorded of Har- 
vey's lecture that "The College voted one hundred pounds out of 
their public stock to make the College room more ample and 
spacious for the better celebration of this most solemn lecture." 
In spite of the stir such new knowledge must have produced in 
the medical world of that day I find neither in the preambles nor 
text proper of Culpepper's translation any reference made to it. 

Of the humors and virtues we need not say more ; they are too 
far removed from our line of thought. A few of the general in- 
structions, however, when and how to administer the doses, may 
be quoted. In true allopathic vein he says "Consider that all 
diseases are cured by their contraries, that all parts o* tne oouy 
are maintained by their likes." As to the selective use of drugs, 
"Have a care you use not such medicines to one part of your body 
which are appropriate to another, or you may make mad work. 
Use no strong medicines if weak will serve the turn ; you had 
better take one too weak by half than too strong in the least." 
Drugs to stop intestinal discharge should, he says, be taken about 
an hour before meals, that they may have a chance to work before 
the food is taken in, but for vomiting, after meals, "that so they 
may close up the mouth of the stomach, and that is the reason 

96 ^ BARLE3 1 iBM ham ( m.1.1 

why usualh men eat a little cheese after meat, because by its Eoul- 

neaa and binding it closes the mouth of the stomach, thereby 
Staying belching and vomiting." To-day we hear many ideas 
about the action of cheese, but 1 think you will admit this old one 
is a new one. 

The instructions for taking purges are quite elaborate. De- 
tails of the proceedings give the rules for the preliminary diet, 
temperature of the room, and such ; "After a mild dose you may 
go out the next day ; but after a strong dose let there be a good 
fire in the chamber and stir not out of your chamber till the purge 
has done working, or not till the next day." If some of their 
potions were given to a delicate patient of our times he probably 
would be confined to the bed several days to recuperate. 

The weights and measures correspond in general to our own; 
handful and half-handful are recognized, and a pugil was as much 
as you could take up with your thumb and two fingers. In speak- 
ing of the weights and measures of the older dispensatory many 
names strange to us are quoted : A "hemina," a measure contain- 
ing nine ounces ; a "sextary," eighteen ounces ; "congie," six sex- 
taries; a "libra," supposed to correspond to Galen's " fiezptx,^," 
twelve ounces, and the measure was made of a horn marked by 
twelve rings, each subdivision representing one ounce. 

The catalogue of drugs is arranged according to the physical 
portions of plants — roots, barks, herbs, flowers, fruits and buds. 
Then the living creatures, metals, minerals and stones. This con- 
sumes only fifty-two pages, and considering their number it seems 
very little, yet for the most part the description is quite brief of 
each, and but little botanical differentiation is given, and their 
therapeutic purposes, though in some instances they are enumer- 
ated quite at length, on the other hand, they are often dismissed 
with a word or two. In the list of the "simples," that is one article 
or drug, as such, in counterdistinction to a combination, the dose 
is often omitted, in fact rarely mentioned. This is easy enough, 
possibly, to explain, for decoctions and infusions were the com- 
monest preparations and would not require any very great ac- 
curacy. Take as an example asparagus, or "spirage;" its quality 
is given as "temperate, opening, they provoke urine and cleanse 
the reins and the bladder, being boiled in white wine and the wine 
drunk." Strength and amount are not stated; it was probably 
like the receipt in many a modern cook-book which usually ends 
by saying "Add flour to make a stiff batter, stir, flavor to suit 
and serve." 

THE London I'll ARMAC0PCE1A OF 1654. 97 

Our much used family country remedy, the onion, had two 
hundred and fifty years ago a valuable cure-all list, as to-day; it 
was written of them, "They breed but little nourishment, and that 
little is naught. They are bad meat, yet good physick for the 
phlegmatic people; they are opening and provoke urine and the 
terms if cold be the cause obstructing ; bruised and outwardly ap- 
plied, they cure the bitings of mad dogs, roasted and applied they 
help boils, raw they take the fire out of burns." If to this list 
there had been added that, carried in the hip or trousers' pocket, 
especially with a horse-chestnut, they would cure rheumatism, the 
list would be truly complete enough to please any old New Eng- 
land farmer. 

The more I look over this ancient pharmacopoeia the less sur- 
prised I am to see how the notions of those days have lasted and 
passed along as traditions across the span of time (many of them, 
it is true, dependent upon a good fundamental truth, though it 
may be empirical) and in our day analyzed on a more solid physio- 
logical basis. Others were empirically correct but uncouth, yet 
they still are found to cling, though among the uneducated for the 
most part. The number which have passed into oblivion is great. 
Most of our fruits were used then for similar purposes and action 
as to-day. Of the fig it is recorded, "Green figs are held to be of 
ill juice, but the best is, we are not much troubled with them in 
England. Dried figs help cough, cleanse the breast and infirmities 
of the lungs, shortness of wind, loose the belly, purge the reins, 
help inflammation of the liver and spleen ; outwardly they dissolve 
swellings. Some say the continued eating of them makes men 

These statements go better to show the temperament of the 
book and editor, but for the roots, fruits, herbs and buds, it is 

Picking out at random for comparison a few of the drugs 
which we still find retained in our dispensatory, some of which 
are even official, one or two examples will answer. 

Barbanae, in U. S. P. called luppa or burdock, has attributed 
to it to-day a diuretic action, used in gout, rheumatism, cutaneous 
diseases, pulmonary catarrh, and a solvent for vesical calculi. In 
the past it was for hemorrhages from the lung, locally applied 
with salt for bites, promoted renal secretion, expelled wind and 
eased pains of the teeth. 

In contrast, colchicum of to-day and its value is dismissed with 


the remark, "'The roots are held to he harmful to the stomach 
therefore 1 let them alone." 

( ialanga, a ginger-like root, is still in use, though not officinal; 
its infusion is for flatulency; it is a gastric stimulant now; the 
older authority attributes the same action, but in addition adds 
"the smell of it strengthens the brain, relieves weak hearts, takes 
away windiness of the womb, heats the reins and provokes lust." 

This is one of the few instances where we find the dose given, 
a half a drachm of the root. 

Glycyrrhize has properties not unlike those attributed to it 
to-day. One strange feature is interesting. It was claimed that 
if beaten into a powder and put into the eye it was a special remedy 
for a pin and a web. The meaning of these words is the follow- 
ing : A pin is a caligo, or cloudy spot on the cornea ; a web is 
what is known now as a ptyregium, sometimes spoken of as 

Agrimonia, agrimony, is one of the most ancient drugs coming 
down to us from the Greeks. In Culpepper's time it had the 
cognomen "Galen's Eupatorium," now used as an astringent in 
gargles or for ulcers, chronic fluxes of bowels, bladder or vagina, 
passive hemorrhage. In the past the same claims were made, 
with the addition, "It amends infirmities of the liver, and helps 
such as piss blood." 

Rhubarb, althaea, marsh-mellow, and quite a number of others 
could be culled out of the catalogue, which are still mentioned 
in our dispensatory, in some cases even officinal. 

Of the animal extracts of those days you will probably be 
entertained, even if not instructed, especially as the editor looks 
upon them with scorn and sums up their enumeration with the 
following remark : "Then the College acquaints you with more 
wonders, that there are certain living creatures called bees, wood- 
lice, silk-worms, toads, grasshoppers, little puppy dogs, swallows, 
snails, sparrows and many others (I do not copy all). A part of 
this crew of cattle and some others which they have been pleased 
to learn, may be made beneficial to your sick bodies. Be pleased 
to understand that bees, being burnt to ashes and a lye made with 
the ashes, trimly deck a bald head being washed with it." So you 
see hair restorers were being thought of even then. 

"Snails with shells on their backs, being first washed from the 
dirt, then the shells broken, and they boiled in spring water but 
not scummed at all, for the skum will sink in itself, and the water 
drunk, is a most admirable remedy for consumption. And here, 


by the way, I cannot but admire at the simplicity of most phy- 
sicians who prescribe that the snails ought to be purged from their 
slime either with salt or bran before they be used which, if you 
dn, will take away their virtue, for the reason why they cure con- 
sumption is that man being made of the slime of the earth, a slimy 
substance recovers him when he is wasted." 

He refers to the excrements of animals suggested by the col- 
lege, and says they are recorded as the College of Physicians left 
them, and ends up with the satirical remark, "For impose them 
they could not, for want of authority. Alack ! alack ! the king 
is dead ! and the College of Physicians want power to impose the 
truth upon men." 

The apothecaries under control of the college were ordered 
to keep in their shops parts of animals. The list takes up nearly 
a page, and is ridiculous ; one might think Rabelais had devised 
it. For instance, the skull of a man killed by violent death, a 
cock's comb, tooth of a boar, liver of a wolf, human calculus, jaw 
of a pike, piece of a mummy, crab's eyes, omentum of a lamb, 
inner skin of a chicken's gizzard, cobwebs, rennet of a lamb, a 
hare, a calf, and so on ad infinitum. 

Culpepper adds a note to this list saying they should have put 
in the rennet of an ass, to make a medicine for their addled brains ; 
the next time they alter their dispensatory let them go and take 
counsel of the butchers. Truly these would have knocked down 
such an error like an ox, and told them no creature had rennets 
but such as sucked. 

"That small triangular bone in the skull of a man called os 
triqutrium, so absolutely cures the falling sickness that it will 
never come again, (saith Paracelsus)." The os triqutrium is, I 
believe, a small wormian bone found in the cranial sutures. 

The liver of a frog, dried and eaten, helps quartan agues, or 
as the vulgar call them, third day agues. 

Burnt goat or sheep bladders taken internally help diabetes 
or continual pissing. 

Even human fat was considered good for annointing wasting 
limbs. The oyster, as to-day, reduces a swelling. Live animals, 
such as swallows, being macerated with pestle and mortar, mixed 
with many ingredients, soaked in white wine, strained and drank, 
I believe, was to improve the eyesight and clear the brain (but at 
this moment I cannot find the paragraph). Many herbs, stones 
and substances were worn as charms, which we see done even in 
our day. 


The preparations I have not gone into with their definitions 
but lohoch or eclegmata should be mentioned. The tcrni to-day 
is "a loch," an electuary, lambative or lincture (Webster). Cul- 
pepper defines the term "Because," as he says, "this word also is 
understood by so few." The word "lohoch" is an Arabic word, 
called in Greek fegAtf/Mt?, in Latin linctus, and signifies a thing to 
be licked. Thicker than a syrup but not so thick as an electuary 
it was invented against roughness of the wind pipe, of chest 
coughs and colds. Manner of reception is with a Liquoris stick 
bruised at the end to take up same and retain it in the mouth. 

Wines, syrups, electuaries, pills, oils, troches, and all com- 
pounds, are given. If the foregoing examples represent to you an 
idea of the simples, I will leave it to your imagination to picture 
the compounds. Listen to one of them : 

"Spiritus Lavandulae compositus. The College instructs the 
apothecary accordingly. Take lavender flowers one gallon, to 
which pour three gallons of the best spirit of wine ; let them stand 
together in the sun six days, then distill them with an alembic 
with its refrigeratory; then he is to take flowers of sage, rose- 
mary and bettany, each a handful, the flowers of bugloss lilies of 
the valley, cowslips, of each two handfuls ; let the flowers be 
newly and seasonably gathered, infused in one gallon of best 
spirit of wine and mingled with the foregoing spirits of lavender 
flower, adding the leaves of bawn, feather-few and orange tree; 
fresh gathered the flowers, and bay-berries, of each one ounce 
after convenient digestion distill it again. Then eleven more ar- 
ticles are added, allowed to digest for six weeks, then strained 
and filtered, then nine more ingredients, mostly spices, are to be 
tied in a bag and to be hung in the aforesaid spirits. This receipt 
I give you in an abbreviated form according to a certain Mat- 
thias." Culpepper's comments on such a lengthy, complicated and 
indefinite lay-out are quite amusing. To quote him he says : 
"Although I could have easily been brought to believe that the 
College never intended the Company of Apothecaries any good, 
yet before I read this receipt I could not conceive they willingly 
intended to impose impossibilities upon them." For he shows 
up the impossibility of collecting many of these plants and flowers 
fresh, as they bloom in different seasons, to say nothing of obtain- 
ing in England fresh oranges and blossoms ; likewise he says the 
instructions for distillation are too indefinite for any man to carry 
them out properly, and he ends up the remark, "If they can make 
a shift to make it, which is a task almost if not altogether as hard 


as to spit over St. Paul's, how or which way the virtues of it would 
countervail the one-half of the charge and cost to leave the pains 
and trouble out. But Dr. Ignoramus followed Matthias and never 
considered he lived in a different climate." 

I fear these foregoing fragments seem disjointed to you. It 
is because 1 could not venture to ask your time to listen to any 
consecutive review of the work taken up by headings classified 
either under a botanical or therapeutic division. It was my inten- 
tion to draw more comparison between the old drugs of that time 
and those of our day, but it seemed far too complicated to attempt 
to do it justice in reasonable space. There has come to my hand 
a great deal more material allied to the therapeutics and medicine 
of this middle seventeenth century, and I would have liked to 
incorporate it. Some of it we would look upon as humorous and 
grotesque, but on the other hand, many of the facts were sign- 
posts which have led us to where we stand now. A sketch of the 
translator of the work could well have been added, and is recorded 
in history, but suffice it to state he was a man of parts, educated 
at Oxford, a soldier in the Parliamentary Wars, wounded in battle 
by a bullet in the thorax, a doctor of physic in London, enjoyed 
a high reputation with considerable practice, and did much charity, 
helping the poor and needy sick, by whom he was greatly beloved, 
a prolific writer. After his death his numerous manuscripts were 
collected and published. He died in his thirty-sixth year, just 
before this book was printed. In the preamble to the reader he 
concludes : 

"I love well and am as willing to help all ingenuous men, 
"though their parts be never so weak, but I hate pride in whom- 
soever I find it. I bid thee farewell for this time. 

"Nich. Culpepper. 
"January 2d, 1653." 

1 J 1 11 



Delivered before the New JTork Academy of Medicine, May ioth, 1901. 


New Jfork City. 

Mr. President and Fellows ! 

Samuel Smith Purple was born on the 24th day of June, 1822, 
at Lebanon, Madison County, N. Y., and died on the 29th day 
i September, 1900, al ins residence, 36 West Twenty-second 
Street, in the City of New York. His life extended over a period 
of seventy-eight years, three months and five days, or the last 
three fourths of the nineteenth century. 

Dr. Purple's ancestry was English, both on the paternal and 
maternal side. Christopher Purple ( 1580-1605) came to America 
from the County of Essex, England, and from him descended the 
Purple families oi Connecticut, Dr. Purple was the seventh in 

descent from Edward Purple, who settled in lladdam, Conn., in 

1674. His maternal grandfather, Dr. James Sheffield, of Earl- 

ville, N. Y., was also of English descent. 

Dr. Purple began his life under conditions which would of 
necessity tend to develop a strong and self-reliant character. His 
father. Lyman Smith Purple, and his mother, Minerva Sheffield, 
belonged to the class of adventurous pioneers who emigrated from 
New England tq Central New York and converted a wilderness 
into habitable homes. His business was that i^i tanner and shoe- 
maker, two trades that were very naturally united in one in the 
new settlements. To this trade the subject of our sketch was 
rigorously bred, with only such opportunity for an education as 
the public school afforded. Every one familiar with the common 
school of the rural districts at that period can appreciate the ad- 
vantages which he had for laying the foundations of a successful 
professional career. The bare rudiments of the primary branches 
alone were taught and the methods of instruction were so imper- 
fect that the student was practically left to himself. After the age 
of thirteen young Purple only attended the school in the winter, 
and at sixteen his opportunities for an education ceased alto- 
gether, for he was compelled to devote himself wholly to the 
business of his father. It appears from some notes which he 
made of his boyhood that it was devoted to the usual sports of 
children of his age, hunting and fishing being his favorite employ- 

Medical Library ami Historical J<>u> /;«//. 7903. 

Plate s. 

Samuel Smith Purple, ML). 
1 822- 1 900. 


incuts, which led to the remark of the members of the family that 
"Sam would never he good for anything else." It is evident now 
that he was unconsciously making preparation, physically and 
mentally, for the terrible struggle which awaited him at the outset 
of his professional career. 

The failure to secure a thorough education in his youth was 
a source of profound regret to him in his later life and greatly 
embarrassed him in his subsequent work in the field of medical, 
historical and genealogical literature. 

In 1836 the father removed from Lebanon to Earlville, Che- 
nango County, New York, where he pursued the business of 
manufacturer and dealer in shoes until his death in 1839. With 
this last event new responsibilities devolved upon Samuel, the 
eldest son. At the age of seventeen he had to assume the charge 
of the business and the support of the family, now in reduced 
circumstances. That the task was difficult is apparent from the 
fact that it required three years of unremitting application of all 
his energies to relieve the estate of debt and secure for his mother 
a very humble home in the village. 

But his thoughts were not altogether confined to his business 
during this trying period, for we learn that he not only conceived 
the idea of studying medicine, but actually began reading such 
books as were accessible to him. He was probably prompted to 
undertake this study through contact with his grandfather, Dr. 
James Sheffield, and a relative, Dr. W. D. Purple, of a neighbor- 
ing county. He obtained books from the village physician, Dr. 
David Ransom and devoted every leisure moment to their study. 
His habit was to rise at four o'clock in the morning and to study 
until seven o'clock, when he went to his shop and during the day 
studied, while working on the bench, with his book placed in a rack 
before him. He carried on his studies in this manner for a long 
period without the knowledge of his family, and it was only when 
he engaged in a discussion on a medical subject with his grand- 
father, Dr. Sheffield, and was rebuked by his mother for presum- 
ing to contradict the old gentleman, that he announced that he had 
been a student of medicine for a long period. She used to relate 
the circumstance of finding a skeleton in an old sofa in his room, 
where he studied it unseen, and the horror its presence in the 
house created until she compelled its removal. 

In 1842, at the age of twenty years, he had so far succeeded 
in his father's business that he prepared to attend a course of 
lectures in a medical college. Geneva Medical College then offered 


the best opportunities for a student in his financial straits. 1 )r. 
Ransom secured for him, through the Censors of the State Medical 
Society, a free course in that college. To acquire the necessary 
means of support during the term he worked on a farm for wages 
during the months of June, July, August and September, and on 
the first of October went to Geneva, having only sufficient meant 
for his support during the term by the exercise of the most rigid 

Geneva Medical College was at that time one of the most 
reputable schools in the country. It was the legitimate successor of 
the Western College of Physicians and Surgeons, Fairfield, Her- 
kimer County, New York. Its faculty contained some of the most 
eminent teachers in the country. Its professor of chemistry was 
James Hadley, from whom descended the Hadleys of Yale. Dr. 
Spencer, one of the most eminent physicians of that day, taught 
medicine ; Dr. Coventry was a painstaking lecturer on obstetrics ; 
Dr. Frank H. Hamilton gave brilliant lectures on surgery ; Dr. 
Webster, lately of Philadelphia, taught anatomy ; Lee, of New 
York, gave the course on materia medica. The value of this 
course of lectures to a student who had been thus far his own 
instructor consisted in its power to systematize his studies and 
teach him how to study. In this respect the term at Geneva was 
of great value to the student Purple and was regarded by him as 
the beginning of his real course in medicine. 

During the following summer he pursued his trade and con- 
tinued his medical studies with greater zeal and with far greater 
success than previously. Through the agency of his relative, Dr. 
W. D. Purple, a member of the State Board of Censors of the 
State Medical Society, he secured a free course of lectures in the 
medical department of the University of the City of New York, 
which had an available beneficiary fund. In the autumn of 1843, 
with only money sufficient to sustain him through the term, he 
came to New York and entered the University Medical College. 
This college had been in existence but three years, having been 
organized in 1841. At its head was Dr. Valentine Mott, acknowl- 
edged the foremost surgeon of the world, and in its faculty we 
find the names of John W. Draper, Granville Sharp Patterson, 
Martin Payne and others of equal repute at that time. The in- 
spiration which he caught from the teachings of these eminent 
professors remained a lasting heritage. He often spoke of them 
individually and always with expressions of gratitude and even 


He graduated at the close of the term in March, 1844, and re- 
turned to his home in Earlville. Among his early friends in the 
village was a theological student who became the pastor of the 
Laight Street Baptist Church of this city. While the young 
medical student was attending lectures at the University Medical 
College he renewed his acquaintance with his clerical friend, the 
Rev. William W. Everts, and the question of his future location 
in practice was discussed and many inducements to locate in 
New York were advanced. At first he shrank from what seemed 
to him an undertaking doomed in the very nature of the condi- 
tions to a most disastrous failure. His highest ambition had been 
to become a respectable practitioner in a country community where 
his limited means would be sufficient for his support. But when 
in the quiet of his mother's home he calmly considered the two 
phases of professional life spread out before him, the country life 
with competency but no future, and the city life with its early 
struggle and unlimited opportunities for development, he calmly 
but resolutely chose the latter and prepared for the struggle. 

In this incident in the life of young Purple, as in the same in- 
cident in each of our own lives, we find the true and supreme test 
of character. He had come to the parting of the ways. On the 
one hand was the quiet and uneventful life of the country prac- 
titioner, with its competence, its good citizenship and universal 
esteem, but devoid of professional associations and the stimulus 
to high attainments and possible preferment. On the other hand 
was the life of the New York City physician, with its years of 
privation and toil in the tenement houses and dispensaries, its 
fierce conflicts for professional advancement, but with its vast 
opportunities for improvement, its constant incentives to higher 
achievements and the possibilities of ultimately winning an honor- 
able position in the profession. It is, indeed, true that many who 
have wealth and friends decide to try their fortunes in the city, 
with the mental reservation that, failing, they will escape to the 
country with the prestige of having been once located in the city. 
And it is an interesting reminiscence of the older physician to re- 
call the number of young men of this class who began their career 
in this city as his contemporaries but whose names have long 
since disappeared from the Medical Directory. But far different 
is it when the question of location in the country or city confronts 
the ambitious young graduate who has not even the means of 
transportation to his destination, much less of support when he 
arrives there. But such was the momentous problem which our 

I06 Mhi'liKN SMI 111. 

graduate hail to solve. Tough as that problem vroi he grappled 

it with the energy of a great and self-reliant character. All his 
immediate interests, coupled with the persuasion of his family de- 
pendent upon his immediate success and of his friends, seemed to 
demand imperatively that he should locate in a country town. 
During several weeks he studied the situation, calmly and judici- 
ally weighing the arguments which arose in his own mind or were 
presented by his friends. The pivotal question with him was 
"What shall be my future?" He had an honorable ambition to 
gain a professional reputation, and to do so he must have adequate 
opportunities. These opportunities could only be secured in the 
city. He counted the cost and determined to locate in New York. 

Preparing for his residence in this city young Purple found he 
possessed a poor wardrobe and $25 in money. In order to save 
as much as possible of his scanty means he engaged as a laborer 
on a canal boat part of the distance and arrived in the city in 
May, 1844, with $17.50 in hand with which to begin the "fight 
for life." He took a room on the second floor of a house in Hud- 
son street, near Canal, and in the immediate vicinity of his Earl- 
ville friend, Rev. Mr. Everts, to whom he was greatly indebted 
for many substantial favors and constant encouragement. For the 
purpose of occupying his leisure hours with clinical work as well 
as to relieve the tedium of the days, weeks and months of waiting 
for business which was to be his lot, he entered the service of the 
old Marion Street Maternity, and subsequently he obtained an ap- 
pointment in the New York Dispensary in Centre street. Thus 
he passed his first, second and third years, each closing with a 
deficit in his finances, though he economized to the extent of 
scarcely purchasing new clothes. The fourth year was marked 
by a decided gain in the quality of his patients and a much better 
income, and the fifth year he was not only able to place himself 
on a much better footing by having his own house, to which he 
removed his mother, but he liquidated his debts and began life 
quite independently. 

During my long and intimate acquaintance with Dr. Purple 
he seldom alluded to his trials during this probationary period, 
apparently shrinking from even the memory of them. But from 
time to time I learned many of the details of the obstacles which 
confronted him and the heroic struggle which he made to over- 
come them. He had anticipated hard work and privations, and 
these he did not fear, for they had been the conditions in his youth 
with which he was perfectly familiar. Subsequent events, how- 


ever, prove that while he justly estimated his power of endurance 
under the most rigorous circumstances he had no real conception 
of the terrible ordeal that awaited him. Some of us can more or 
less correctly appreciate the indomitable courage it required to 
fight this battle to a successful issue. 

It would he well if we could detail all the pathetic incidents of 
the first five years of our friend's professional career, for only in 
that review can we estimate at its true value the innate force of 
his character ; such a recital would also impart a lesson of the first 
importance to the graduate of to-day, for it would prove in a 
striking manner that in our profession, as in every department of 
business, the most successful men in the long run are those who 
in early life are trained in the school of bitter experience to prac- 
tice all the arts of self-reliance and self-help. But we must for- 
bear opening these pages of his life history, for to him they were 
too sacred to be revealed even to his most intimate friends. In a 
few notes which he left he alludes to these early years, and thus 
puts his seal of disapproval upon any revelations of his experiences 
during that period : "The struggles and trials through which I 
passed during the first three or four years will ever remain a 
secret in my bosom. If it had not been for one or two warm 
friends I could not have succeeded in the task I had undertaken. 
It was not until five years had elapsed that I was enabled to pay 
my expenses and liquidate the obligations incurred up to that 

The professional life of Dr. Purple was altogether uneventful. 
Naturally diffident and retiring he sought no position in the hos- 
pitals or medical schools of the city, but quietly devoted himself 
to his practice and bibliographical pursuits. He was elected a 
member of the Pathological Society in 1846 and was a constituent 
member of the Academy of Medicine, which he aided in organ- 
izing in 1847. He also took a deep interest in the organization 
and management of the Society for the Relief of the Widows and 
Orphans of Medical Men. An event of much importance to him 
occurred during these five years of struggle, for it initiated the 
work to which he subsequently devoted so much of his time and 
means. While attending lectures at Geneva he became slightly 
acquainted with Professor Charles A. Lee, of New York, then 
Professor of Materia Medica in that college. In 1845 Dr. Lee 
became editor of the New York Journal of Medicine on the death 
of its founder, Dr. Samuel Forry, and as his duties connected 
with his professorships in country colleges required his absence 


Hum the- city several months he sought the assistance of Dr. 
Purple. So well did the latter perform the duties of this re- 
sponsible position that when Dr. Lee resigned the management 

oi the Journal in May, 1S4S, Dr. Purple wa^ chosen by the pub- 
lisher as his successor. He continued to manage the Journal 
until 1858, when he retired to devote himself more thoroughly to 
his practice and other pursuits. 

Dr. Purple's contributions to medical literature were few in 
number and were for the most part made during his connection 
with the Journal. His first paper appeared in the New York 
Journal of Medicine of March, 1846, and is entitled "Menstrua- 
tion ; Its True Nature and Office, With a Review of the Evidence 
of Its Vesicular Origin, With Illustrative Cases." The object 
of the author was to contribute the results of his studies and in- 
vestigations, through the aid of the coroner's office, to the con- 
troversy then going on as to the function of menstruation and 
the diagnostic value of the corpus luteum as to the occurrence of 
conception. The facts which he contributed from his own studies 
of cases obtained from the Coroner are more convincing than 
those gathered from other sources. At the close of the paper he 
intimates that he has formed opinions in regard to the corpus 
luteum which he may make public. Accordingly, in the November 
number of the Journal, 1846, he published a very elaborate paper 
entitled "Corpus Luteum ; Its Value as Evidence of Conception, 
and Its Relations to Legal Medicine, With the Characteristics of 
the True and False. Being an Attempt to Reconcile the Conflict- 
ing Opinions of Writers by the Recent Discoveries in the Physi- 
ology of the Ovaries." The medical literature of that period con- 
tained many controversial articles on that subject by eminent 
writers at home and abroad, but none show a larger grasp of the 
subject and few equal it in literary style and argumentative force. 

When it is remembered that these two elaborate articles ap- 
peared during the second year of his settlement, while he was 
laboring under innumerable embarrassments, we can better ap- 
preciate the sturdy character and indomitable will of its author. 
And perhaps what is more surprising in view of his limited edu- 
cation and his entire lack of training in composition is the chaste 
and classical language which he employed and the logical presen- 
tation of facts. 

During the four succeeding years he devoted himself assidu- 
ously to his practice and to his editorial duties. The Journal 
showed evidence on every page of his personal supervision, and 


the high order of the original papers showed a wide acquaintance 

of the editor with the best writers of that period. 

The third paper of our author appeared in the Journal of July, 
1850, and is entitled "A Literary, Historical and Practical Sketch 
of Acrania, 'Brainless' or Pseudencephalus Monsters." The 
paper is illustrated by three well-executed engravings of the head 
of a monster of this type met with in his practice. This paper 
was written in the same clear, classical style as the preceding 
papers and shows the same evidences of extensive research of 
medical literature for illustrative facts. 

In 1853 Dr. Purple issued a pamphlet entitled "Contributions 
to the Practice of Midwifery, Forensic Medicine, Physiology and 
Pathology, With Ilustrations." The several subjects treated are 
illustrated by cases occurring in his own practice or to which he 
had been called in consultation by neighboring physicians. It was 
an original paper of merit and at that time attracted considerable 
attention. A feature of the paper which interests us is the evi- 
dent tendency of the author to devote himself to the study of the 
diseases of women. This evidence was strengthened by an an- 
nouncment that a popular English work on the "Diseases of 
Women" would be edited by Dr. Purple and published by the 
firm of Wood Brothers. The projected publication never ma- 

In 1855 appeared a paper in the Journal entitled "Statistics 
of Injuries of the Heart : Observations on Wounds of the 
Heart and Their Relations to Forensic Medicine, With a Table 
of Forty-two Recorded Cases." The occasion of his writ- 
ing this paper was the death of a notorious pugilist by a pistol- 
shot wound of the heart which he survived several days. Much 
doubt was entertained as to the implication of the heart in the 
wound, owing to the survival of the patient for so long a period, 
but the autopsy proved that the ball penetrated the walls of the 
heart. The paper shows great care in its discussion of the ques- 
tions then at issue, and the conclusions are fortified by a judicious 
use of the large number of cases collected. The influence of the 
paper upon surgical opinion was very great, for it was received as 

In the same year he published in the Journal a description of 
"A New Trephine, With Remarks Upon Its Construction" and 
accompanied by an illustration. He states that "Several years 
since, owing to difficulties that arose in the operative manage- 
ment of a case of severe and extensive injury of the head, at- 


tended with depression and extravasation of blood under the 
cranium, in a near relative, 1 was led to engage in a series of 

experiments winch at last resulted in the construction of the in- 
strument represented." The mechanism of the instrument con- 

- of the ordinary crown of a trephine, attached at right an 
to a straight handle having a hinge-joint ; a centre pin with a 
sliding handle, which can he moved up or down, enabled the 
operator to make mora or less pressure upon the crown with his 
left hand, as the the occasion requires. He claimed the following 
advantages for his instrument, viz. t ( i ) in the mode of applying 
the motive power; (2) in the freedom and ease of working it; 
(3) in its uniformity of action; and above all (4) in the less con- 
sequent liability of injuring the brain and its covering. The in- 
strument is a very ingenious device, and in practice accomplishes 
all the inventor claims for it, but it never came into even limited 
use by surgeons and has been relegated to the museum of sur- 
gical curios. 

Dr. Purple also invented an instrument designed to enable the 
operator to rupture a cyst or detach ■ an adenoid growth located 
deeply in the pharynx but within reach of the end of the index 
finger. The instrument resembled the artificial finger nail of 
Darby, Browne, Lauterbach and others. 

The seven papers above reviewed were written during the first 
decade of Dr. Purple's career, and such was their general excel- 
lence that they established his reputation as a medical writer of 
high order. But circumstances now diverted him from the path 
along which he was advancing so successfully and he never wrote 
another scientific medical paper. His connection with the Journal 
had brought him into familiar relations with many of the leading 
physicians of the city. The one who exerted the greatest influence 
upon him was Professor John B. Beck, of the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons. Dr. Beck was a very scholarly man and 
had a large and valuable library, which he had been many years 
perfecting, especially in the department of rare medical pamphlets. 
Commenting upon the importance of collecting and preserving the 
early medical literature of the country, much of which was origin- 
ally printed in pamphlet form, he concluded by urging the young 
editor to avail himself of the opportunity which his position af- 
forded him of securing and preserving every early publication 
obtainable. At the same time he gave him a large number of 
pamphlets, w T hich really formed the nucleus of the enormous col- 
lection which he subsequently made. These suggestions of Pro- 


fessor Beck stimulated into the greatest activity the latent pas- 
sion for bibliography, which was finally to absorb so much of the 
time and means of his young friend. 

From this time onward his business satisfactorily increased, 
both in quantity and quality, and -though he never attained to a 
large and lucrative practice, his income satisfied every ambition 
except the single one of providing all the means he craved for 
the purchase of books. But when the opportunity offered of se- 
curing rare works he did not let it pass on account of a momentary 
want of money. His credit was good with all classes of book 
dealers and with most of the purveyors of old books he had stand- 
ing orders for the purchase of rare editions. For the period of 
half a century he maintained a close personal acquaintance with 
all dealers in old books, and no quaint old volume in the second- 
hand book stores or in the auction rooms escaped his careful 
scrutiny. At first his attention was especially directed to rare 
medical books and pamphlets, but constant association with the 
dealers in old books drew his attention to other inviting fields of 
bibliographical research. He was thus led to the study of Ameri- 
can historical literature, and his collection of rare books and 
pamphlets relating to the early history of New York was very 
valuable. It very naturally happened that these investigations into 
the history of the early families drew his attention to the import- 
ant and enticing department of genealogical research. To these 
subjects he finally devoted a large amount of his leisure time, and 
his collection of books and pamphlets relating thereto was prob- 
ably not surpassed by any private library in this country. He 
was one of the active promoters of the Genealogical Society of 
this city and was one of its officers from the time of its organiza- 
tion. As a member of its publication committee he was specially 
interested in the publication of the organ of the Society The New 
York Genealogical and Biographical Record, to the pages of 
which he contributed much valuable matter. 

Dr. Henry R. Stiles, who was associated with Dr. Purple for 
many years in the editorship of the Genealogical and Biographical 
Record, in his sketch of his associate makes the following allu- 
sion to his relations to the Genealogical Society : "Singular 
modesty and reticence as to himself, his labors and plans, con- 
cealed from his friends and associates, both in the profession and 
in our society, the value and importance of his life work. It is 
only now, when death has removed him from the spheres of his 
activity, that we fully appreciate the value of what he has done. 


We remember his quiet ways, his few but always helpful words, 
his gentle measured speech, and the interest that spoke bo plainly 
from hi^ eyes, as we took sweet counsel together in our society 
and committee meetings; and we arc thankful to have been so 
long permitted the companionship and friendship of so true a 
man and so wise a counsellor." 

The most important event in the professional life of Dr. 
Purple was his election to the presidency of the New York 
Academy of Medicine. This event occurred on the election of 
officers for the year 1875, a quarter of a century after his settle- 
ment. It was an honor which he greatly prized and which he 
richly deserved. He had labored diligently to advance the best 
interests of the Academy from the outset and had contributed 
freely his time, his influence and whatever his slender means 
would permit to secure for it a library and a permanent home. In 
his inaugural address, delivered January 21, 1875, he dwelt feel- 
ingly and eloquently upon these two themes, which were then 
agitating the members of the Academy. He said : "It requires 
no argument here to show the necessity or value of a great refer- 
ence medical library, located in this city. * * * * The time has 
arrived in which it is imperatively demanded." The permanent 
home of the Academy which was pictured in his mind he de- 
scribed as "a hall where the whole profession may meet on com- 
mon ground — one which shall be the recognized medical centre — 
within which the various medical organizations of the city may 
have ample accommodations for holding their meetings ; where 
museums and libraries may be gathered and where every depart- 
ment of medical study and investigation may find accommodation. 
* * * * It is in * * * the possession of a home that many of 
the better and brighter hopes of the profession are centred. In 
it we see the facilities for a greater centralization of the power 
and influence of medical men in all matters which appertain to 
medical science and also to the health interests of the public at 
large; may it not lead to a union of the scattered resources and 
medical organizations of the city? * * * This Academy must 
eventually have a building not less imposing in its appearance 
than similar structures in the metropolis and adequate in all its 
appointments to the growing wants and future exigencies of the 
profession." Fortunately he lived to see the hopes and wishes 
that he entertained finally and fully realized. 

He was honored with an election to the presidency of the 
Academy a second time, and on January 18, 1877, delivered his 


inaugural address. He chose for his subject "Medical Libraries 

Association to establish medical Libraries, he narrates the dis- 
cuss intelligently, and in it, after sketching the efforts of the Medi- 
cal Society of New York, the New York Hospital and the Journal 
Association to establish medical libraries, he narrates the dis- 
covery which he made of the little brochure by Dr. Samuel Bard, 
entitled "An Inquiry Into the Nature and Cure of the Angina 
SufTocativa, or Sore Throat Distemper, As It Is Commonly Called 
by the Inhabitants of This City and Colony," printed in 1771. 
He states that he "rescued it from the press-box of a second-hand 
paper dealer in this city in transitu to the maw of a paper mill." 
On examining this pamphlet he became satisfied that in his de- 
scription of the epidemic of 1770, in this city, Dr. Bard had very 
accurately and graphically described the disease now known as 
diphtheria. He quotes at great length from the pamphlet to prove 
that the clinical features of the "Sore Throat Distemper" of 1770 
in this city were identical with the modern diphtheria. He con- 
cluded his address with the following appeal : "Will any fellow 
of this Academy from this time forward despise the day of small 
things, or consign to collectors of rags or paper stock the pamph- 
lets or old editions of medical works which he may weed from his 
library or garret ? Will not all bear in constant remembrance that 
here, in this our own medical home, will be gratefully received 
and carefully treasured every tract, pamphlet, book, manuscript, 
engraving, portrait, small or great, which may be donated?" 

During Dr. Purple's presidency of four years the Academy 
made rapid progress, both in creating the great reference library 
that he so strenuously urged in his inaugural, and equally in secur- 
ing a permanent home of its own. His contributions to both ob- 
jects were of vital importance. To the library he gave that price- 
less treasure the serial medical literature of this country. What 
that collection cost him of time, money and patient toil no one can 
have the remotest conception. For more than a quarter of a 
century he ransacked every collection of old pamphlets accessible 
to him in this and other cities. Many were the occasions when 
he despaired of completing sets, but by correspondence with 
dealers in old books, with the older physicians and by advertising 
in medical periodicals, offering at the same time suitable payment, 
he succeeded in completing full sets of all of the medical 
periodicals ever published in this country. From the first his 
ultimate purpose seemed to be, though not expressed in words, to 
have the collection form part of the projected reference library 


of the Academy. This purpose was carried out in part when he 
donated upwards of 5,000 volumes of American medical journal* 
to the lihrary of the Academy. Though the Academy already had 
a considerable collection of miscellaneous medical works, it is 
generally recognized that the addition of Dr. Purple's contribution 
of the complete serial medical literature of this country laid the 
foundations for a reference library on which the present magnifi- 
cent superstructure is being reared. 

Dr. Purple's contribution to the building- fund of the Academy 
marked an era in the struggle of its Ways and Means Committee 
to secure the money necessary to the purchase of a permanent 
home. This contribution was made through him by the widow of 
the late Dr. Alexander E. Hosack and amounted to the sum of 
$75,000. This money would never have been given to the 
Academy except through the good offices which he rendered to 
Dr. and Mrs. Hosack. During one of my latest conversations 
with him Dr. Purple detailed at length the circumstances attend- 
ing the negotiations which resulted in the donation of that mag- 
nificent sum to the building fund of the Academy. It is sufficient 
for the purposes of this sketch to state that so intense was Dr. 
Hosack's antipathy to certain leading members of the Academy 
when Dr. Purple first approached him on the subject of contribu- 
ting to the building fund that he resented the suggestion. But 
Dr. Purple persevered, and by his kindly and friendly interest in 
Dr. Hosack and his wife so won their confidence that after her 
husband's death Mrs. Hosack notified Dr. Purple that in com- 
pliance with Dr. Hosack's expressed intention and in accordance 
with her own purpose she was prepared to give the Academy the 
munificent sum of $75,000. Though there was a considerable 
building fund at that time it was not sufficient to determine, except 
prospectively, the certainty of a permanent home for the Academy 
in the immediate future. It may fairly be claimed that Dr. 
Purple's contributions to the library and to the building fund 
were in their results of the nature of foundations. 

After his retirement from the presidency of the Academy Dr. 
Purple devoted himself more exclusively to the task of perfecting 
his collection of medical, historical and genealogical literature. His 
writings, which were very limited, were confined for the most part 
to notes or short papers on medical and genealogical subjects. He 
has been for several years collecting medical portraits, which he 
contemplated publishing in quarto form with brief biographical 
sketches, but he left only the collection without any text. These 


prints are valuable and ought to be published in the form which he 
designed, both for their value and as a fitting tribute to his 

During his last few years Dr. Purple lived a very retired life, 
rarely appearing at the meetings of the Academy or in any 
society. The first evidence of an approaching termination of his 
life occurred in 1890, when he had a hemorrhage into the pos- 
terior chamber of the eye, which permanently destroyed its sight. 
He recognized the significance of this symptom, but looked for- 
ward with calm resignation to the inevitable issue. Subsequent 
to this occurrence it was discovered that he was suffering from 
Bright's disease in an advanced stage, and the final termination of 
his life was due to its complications. 

Dr. Purple's personality was that of a quiet, reserved gentle- 
man ; fastidious in his dress ; dignified but affable in his manners ; 
with a kindly benevolent expression of countenance that indicated 
a genial, happy temperament and an aversion for all forms of 
contention and controversy. This feature of his character was 
illustrated in many of the events of his life. A controversy having 
arisen in the church of which he was a member he withdrew from 
it and never joined another. He manifested no interest in the 
current political events of the country or city, and scrupulously 
shunned all contact with societies where he might be led into 
partizanship. The only instance where he manifested any con- 
siderable personal feeling was when the issues raised by the discus- 
sion of the code of ethics led to divisions in the profession in this 
State. He was naturally intensely devoted to the traditions of the 
profession, not from any narrow prejudice, but rather owing to his 
conception of the dignity and eminence of the senior medical 
men, who in the early days of the Academy had struggled to 
organize the profession of the city to resist the progress of 
charlatanry. In his daily life Dr. Purple was a model of gentle- 
ness, kindness and benevolence. Though never married he 
maintained a home, where his mother, brother and his brother's 
widow and children lived in the enjoyment of domestic peace and 

Mr. President : There will be few more occasions like this 
in the history of the Academy, for Dr. Purple was nearly the last 
surviving founder. How can the memory of these pioneers best 
be perpetuated is a question which should receive the most con- 
siderate thought. Your committee on a memorial have been deep- 
ly impressed with the belief that testimonials of respect and grati- 


hide for the beneficent work of departed Fellows should have a 
visible and tangible form which may be seen and read by all men. 
To this end we have the satisfaction of presenting to the Academy 
two memorials of our late Fellow and former president. 

The first memorial is a bronze tablet, placed at the entrance 
of the library in Woerrishofer Hall. It seemed to us a peculiarly 
fitting act on the part of the Academy to place this tablet at the 
entrance to and exit from the Library where the present and fu- 
ture student might for all time be informed to whom he is largely 
indebted for the inestimable privilege of being able to perfect his 
knowledge in every branch of the medical sciences at the very 
fountains of medical literature. The inscription on the tablet is 
as follows : 









The second memorial is his full-sized portrait for which the 
Academy is indebted to the generosity of Mrs. Edwin R. Purple. 
Everyone will recognize how singularly accurate this painting is 
in the portraiture of its subject, and how perfect it is in every 
detail where the highest degree of art is required. It will prove 
a valuable addition to the growing and already notable collection 
of portraits of eminent members of the Academy and as a work 
of art will compare favorably with the best paintings of Hunt- 
ington, Rossiter Johnson and others, which adorn the walls of 
Hosack Hall. Its intrinsic value, however, to the present and fu- 
ture Academician will be found in its memorial character, for it 
will ever recall, like a living presence, the example of one who 
through a long life devoted his energies and substance to the task 
of endowing the Academy with a permanent home and a refer- 
ence library unsurpassed in its completeness. 




Member of the Library Committee of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, Perm. 

Last year, while in search of accurate records and definite 
data for use in a monograph upon the "Rise of Ophthalmology 
in the United States of America" — a work which is rapidly 
nearing completion — I was rewarded by the finding of the origi- 
nal minute book of the managers of the Pennsylvania Infirmary 
for Diseases of the Eye and Ear. 

This manuscript record, partly in the handwriting of Dr. 
Isaac Hays, its donor to the College of Physicians, of Philadel- 
phia, brings to light the existence of an infirmary for the spe- 
cial treatment of diseases of the eye and ear in the city of Phil- 
adelphia as early as February, 1822 ; more than 80 years ago. 

Careful perusal of the minutes of the various meetings, ex- 
tending over a period of more than seven years, exhibits the 
character of the men who managed the affairs of the institu- 
tion, and offers evidence of the reputation of the surgeons who 
gave their skill to those who applied for relief. 

Organized on the eighth day of February, 1822, with Mr. 
James Gibson in the chair, Dr. Isaac Hays, secretary, and Mr. 
Richard C. Wood, treasurer, the Infirmary made its appearance 
in the ophthalmic world. 

At the initial meeting "it was resolved that the surgeons be 
a committee, with authority to procure a room for an infirmary, 
and to make arrangements for carrying into effect, the objects 
of the institution." The same committee was instructed to pre- 
pare an address to the public ; to have 250 copies of it and a 
constitution printed in pamphlet form ; and to frame a system 
of by-laws : all of which was to be reported upon at the next 
meeting of the board. 

Twelve days later, at a managers' meeting — one at which 
Mr. William Meredith presided — the committee reported that it 
had obtained the use of a second-story room at No. 4 South 
Seventh street, by the month, at $100 per annum ; that it had 

*Read before the Historical Club of the Department of Medicine of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 


made arrangements with the apothecaries, Messrs. A. M. and 
1 l Cohen, to furnish medicines at a reasonable rate; and that 
it had prepared an address and a constitution, and had had 

specified number of copies printed in pamphlet form. 

The amended by-laws adopted at this meeting, practically 
stated that there should be monthly meetings of the manag 
three of whom should constitute a quorum; that the city should 
be divided into a northern and a southern district with Chestnut 
street as a dividing line; and that the surgeons for the northern 
and the southern districts respectively, should be in attendance 
at the Infirmary at 12 M. on alternate days during the week. 
It was further agreed that patients residing within the limits of 
the city who were not able to visit the Infirmary, should be at- 
tended at their homes ; but that all patients living in other parts 
"of the State or elsewhere, who can attend the Infirmary will 
be received under the care of the institution." It was ordered 
that each surgeon was to remain on duty three months at a time, 
and that during this period he was to make entry of the name, 
the age, the occupation and the residence of the patient together 
with the diagnosis of the disease, in a book intended for that 
purpose ; which record it was expressly stated ' 'shall be laid be- 
fore the managers at each meeting/' 

After these matters had been arranged, it was resolved that 
the surgeons should resolve themselves into a committee to have 
1,000 copies of a letter of recommendation and rules for the 
government of patients printed.* The choice of necessary blank 
books and instruments was given to this same committee. 

On the fourth of April of the same yearf it was resolved that 
arrangements should be made by the surgeons, as a committee 
with instructions to obtain a cupper and leecher for the insti- 
tution. At the same meeting it was agreed that a committee 
should be appointed "to address a letter, with a copy of our con- 
stitution and letter of recommendation, to the presidents of each 
of our charitable societies informing them that we are prepared 
to receive under the care of the institution all cases of diseases 
of the eye and ear which they will recommend." Mr. Gibson 
and Mr. Meredith were appointed as this committee. It was 
also resolved that a committee be appointed to revise the con- 
stitution — "to make such alterations as may be thought expe- 

*I have as yet been unable to obtain a copy of this letter and rules. 
fAccording to a note in the minutes there was not any meeting held 
in March. 


dienl In matter of form — not of substance" (mind ye! "but") — 
"to cause to be fairly copied, and after having obtained the sig- 
natures of the contributors, to present it to the Supreme Court 
in order to procure a charter." James Gibson, Dr. William 
Gibson and William Meredith were appointed that committee. 

At this meeting, bills for $16 and $12 each for two quarters' 
k nt and a sign were ordered to be paid to one, I. Meers. 

The next meeting- of importance and interest is that of the 20th 
of February, 1823. At this meeting the surgeons made a report of 
the cases attended by them from the fifteenth day of February, 
1822, to the first of January, 1823. As a result, "it was resolved 
that a committee be appointed to report the cases attended by 
the surgeons to the contributors and to prepare and publish 
an address to the public." Mr. Gibson, Mr. Meredith and Mr. 
C. N. Bancker were appointed on this committee. 

The committee "to make arrangements with a person to 
leech and cup," reported that they had made an agreement with 
a Mr. William Ripberger; this report was approved. The resig- 
nation of Dr. George B. Wood as surgeon was received and ac- 
cepted. Dr. William Darrach was chosen to fill the vacancy. 
It was agreed that the meeting of the board in the future should 
be held quarterly instead of monthly. 

There is not any further entry until the 22d of July, 1824, 
when, after the appointment of the officers for the year (Dr. 
Hays still retaining his secretaryship) "the treasurer reported 
a statement of the finances of the institution, which was ac- 
cepted and a committee appointed to devise means for relieving 
the association from the financial embarrassments" — Richard C. 
Wood, C. N. Bancker and I. J. Kane were appointed on this 

About nine months later (on the ninth of May, 1825), a 
meeting of the board was held at the infirmary. There was a 
very good attendance; Messrs. Bancker, William H. Keating, 
Meredith, Wood and Dr. Wood (who seems to have been placed 
in the management) were present as managers, with the sur- 
geons, Drs. Hays, Bell and Griffith. Mr. Meredith presided and 
Mr. Keating was appointed secretary. 

A committee consisting of Mr. Gibson, Mr. Bancker and Dr. 
Griffith "was appointed to draft a circular letter, representing 
the situation of the institution and its usefulness, and urging 
the citizens to subscribe to it." The committee was ordered 
to have the same printed with the autograph names of the mana- 

120 c BARLES a. OUVBS. 

affixed to it. The preparation of a brief address soliciting 
the support of the public to the infirmary was given to the same 
committee with instructions to insert it in the city papers. In 
addition, the committee was requested to urge the collection of 
dues owing the institution. 

A second committee composed of Messrs. Meredith, IJancker 
and Mr. Manuel Eyre "was appointed to make inquiry concern- 
ing the provisions of the late Mr. James Wills' legacy for the 
blind and lame, and to confer with the committee appointed 
some time since by councils on this subject, if (mark the pro- 
viso) that committee be still in existence. 

"The surgeons were appointed a committee to make ar- 
rangements for a suitable room for the infirmary for the pres- 
ent year." 

Some seven months later, on the 22d of December, 1825, at 
a meeting* of the board at which Mr. Gibson presided, it was 
"stated that with a view to avoid undue expenditure, Dr. Dar- 
rach had presented to the institution a collection of medicines 
for the use of the patients, and that the same had been re- 
plenished by the surgeons as it became necessary ;" thus avoid- 
ing the necessity of presentation of an apothecary's bill ; where- 
upon it was voted that the thanks of the board be given to the 
surgeons for their liberality. 

At this meeting it was resolved that a committee be ap- 
pointed to correspond with the members of the Legislature to 
obtain the passage of an act of incorporation for the contribu- 
tors to the institution; Dr. Hays and Mr. Keating were placed 
on this committee. 

At the first quarterly meeting in 1826, held on the second 
of March, the committee formed to procure an act of incorpo- 
ration for the infirmary, reported that it had obtained such an 
act, a copy of which was produced and delivered to the sur- 

The minutes of this meeting are in the handwriting of Dr. 
Griffith as secretary, he continuing to serve in that capacity 
until the end of the last recorded minute in the book. 

*For the first time Mr. Meredith, as one of the managers, and Mr. 
Darrach, as one of the surgeons, are noted as present at a meeting. 

fin the making of the Secretary's signature, Dr. Griffith spells his middle 
name "Eglesfield" (R. Eglesfield Griffith), proving that the spelling of this 
name as "Egglesfield" in the Alumni Catalogue of the Department of Medi- 
cine of the University of Pennsylvania is incorrect. The name in the cata- 
logue immediately beneath, "R. Eglesfield Griffith," who graduated in 1855, 
also gives the single "g." 


In the fall ol the same year, at a meeting on the 29th of 
September, [826, the names of Messrs. Patterson, Struthers and 

Kane arc on the list of those who were present. At this meet- 
ing all ^i the surgeons (Drs. Bell, Hays, Darrach and Griffith) 
were in attendance. 

A most interesting proposition of the landlord of the in- 
firmary room, Mees, offering the room for $50 per, annum "pro- 
vided that he be allowed the use of said room in the evening 
when not wanted for the uses of the institution," appears at 
this meeting, and was agreed to by the board. 

At the meeting Jan. 4, 1827, "the surgeons reported that 
since the last meeting Mr. Mees had refused the use of his room 
for the purpose of the institution," and that from the 14th of 
November all patients had been attended by the surgeons at 
their respective offices. A committee of three, Drs. Hays and 
Griffith with Mr. Merrick, was appointed with power to take 
measures to procure another room. 

By the minutes of the next meeting on the first of November, 
1827, it will be seen that one of the surgeons (Dr. Darrach, who 
first contributed the drugs) had in the meanwhile given the in- 
firmary a room at $60 per annum, but as it, in the words of the 
minute book "was now rented to the Tract Society," it became 
necessary to procure another. A new committee (the same as 
the last) "was appointed to obtain a suitable room and take 
order thereon." 

Messrs. Gibson, Meredith and Kane were ordered to pre- 
pare the annual report for 1826-27, together with an address to 
the public. 

After an interval of a year and a half, on the 1st of May, 
1829, the next and last meeting of the board is noted by Dr. 
Griffith, the secretary. All of the surgeons with Messrs. Banck- 
er and Gibson as managers, were present. Mr. Bancker was ap- 
pointed treasurer to succeed Mr. Wood, deceased. 

At this meeting a Mr Bernard Doonin was authorized to 
collect subscriptions for the institution and two committees, one 
to examine and report as to the state of the finances, and the 
other to prepare an address to the public on the work accom- 
plished by the institution, were formed. 

These actions end the recorded minutes in this, the only book 
of the board that I have been able to obtain. 

Armed with these notes, I determined to find more data upon 
the subject. Assiduously searching for the same, I unexpect- 

Ill I RARLE8 a 0U\ 

edl) came across one of the desired-for pamphlets — a copy of 
the original "Address to the Public." I found it buried in the 
midst of a number of "Medical Tracts, 1820-30," presented to 
the library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, by 
Dr. John Bell, one of the surgeons to the infirmary. It is so 
brief that I give it in full. 

• • • • • 




In calling the attention and soliciting the patronage of the 
public to an institution which is to embrace the relief of a class 
of diseases having so important a bearing on individual happi- 
ness and social comfort, we need but advert to the success which 
has attended similar ones in Europe, more particularly those 
established at London and Vienna. In these cities, thousands 
have been annually relieved and cured of diseases of the eye 
and ear, who otherwise would have lost the use of these all- 
important organs, and proved a burthen to themselves and to 
society. Like benefits have resulted from institutions of the 
same nature in some of our own cities, and we may now confi- 
dently hope that the citizens of Philadelphia, distinguished for 
their zeal and liberality in the support of whatever tends to use- 
fulness and charity, will not suffer the present opportunity to 
escape without testifying their approbation of the institution 
already organized, and prepared to commence its beneficial op- 
eration, as will be seen from the subjoined constitution, adopted 
at a respectable meeting of the contributors on Friday last. 



1. The name of this Institution shall be the Pennsylvania 
Infirmary for Diseases of the Eye and Ear. 

2. Every person who pays annually into the hands of the 
treasurer $2, shall become a contributor, and be entitled to the 
privileges of having two patients at a time under the care of 
the surgeons. The payment of $20 shall make a contributor 
for life. 

3. There shall be attached to the Infirmary four surgeons 

♦Printed at Philadelphia in 1822 by William Fry, Printer, by order of 
the Society. 


and two consulting surgeons, who shall he ex officii) members of 
the Hoard of Managers. 

4. One of the surgeons shall attend at the Infirmary daily. 

5. In case <>f the resignation or demise of any of the sur- 
geons, the Board of Managers shall choose a successor. 

6. Eight managers shall be elected by the contributors, on 
the first Monday of January annually, to continue in office until 
the election of their successors. 

7. The Board of Managers shall have the control of the fi- 
nances and the superintendence of the domestic concerns of the 
Infirmary ; and shall have power to make all necessary by-laws. 

8. The Board of Managers shall annually elect a Treasurer. 

9. Every case of disease of the eye and ear, if recommended 
by a contributor, shall be attended to under such regulations 
as the Managers shall prescribe. 

10. Clinical instruction may be given under such regulations 
as shall be prescribed by the By-Laws. 

11. This Constitution shall not be altered, unless at the an- 
nual meeting of contributors, two-thirds of those present con- 
senting thereto. 

12. The following gentlemen shall be Managers until the 
next election : James Gibson, William Meredith, Charles N. 
Bancker, Manuel Eyre, Robert M. Patterson, M.D. ; Clement C. 
Biddle, William MTlvaine, Richard C. Wood. 

The following gentlemen are appointed Surgeons : George B. 
Wood, M.D.; Isaac Hays, M.D. ; John Bell, M.D., and Robert E. 
Griffith, M.D. 

The following gentlemen are appointed consulting Surgeons : 
Phillip S. Physick, M.D. ; William Gibson, M.D. 

Subscriptions in aid of the above institution will be received 
by Richard C. Wood, Treasurer, or any of the Managers. 

Patients, by applying at the Infirmary, No. 4 South Seventh 
street, will be immediately attended to. 

Study of this address and constitution at once shows that it 
states three important, but not well known facts : ( 1 ) The ex- 
istence of institutions for the treatment of diseases of the eye 
and ear in this country prior to the year 1822; (2) the certain- 
ty of the establishment of a special infirmary for the treatment 
of diseases of the eye and ear in the city of Philadelphia as 
early as the year 1822; (3) that there were opportunities for 
clinical instruction in such diseases at this institution. 




Librarian of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. 

"Nemo solus sapit." 

With the advent of a journal devoted to the bibliographical and 
historical branch of medical science there seems to be a favorable 
opportunity to advance a few suggestions in regard to the admin- 
istration or management of the special library, which, in most 
cases, is the library of a society. 

With the formation of a library of this class one of the organ- 
izers will usually offer his services as Librarian gratuitously, and 
remain in office until, if the affair has progressed successfully, so 
much time and attention is required that a paid employee is neces- 
sary. It is at this point that the first suggestion is offered which, 
while doubtless patent to all, is well worthy of consideration by 
those interested in library management ; that is, the relation of the 
Librarian to the Committee or Board of Directors. 

It is a well-known fact, or at least generally conceded, that 
scientific men, as a rule, are poor business managers. Perhaps 
some branches of science may be better represented than others ; 
however, when a Librarian is employed who is not a member of 
the society or closely allied with the science of the library, there 
seems, from my meager collection of facts, to be a reluctance in 
delegating the authority which is necessary to his office. All af- 
fairs, even details, are brought before the Committee for their 
consideration, the Librarian's work being more or less hampered 
and his business or executive ability (if he possess any), over- 
looked or underestimated. The Board of Directors, Library Com- 
mittee, or by whatsoever title the governing party is known, are 
responsible for the general management of the library, but it is 
the Librarian who does the work, under the rules formulated by 
the Committee or Society proper. If efficient, he is thoroughly 
conversant with every detail and, if not hampered in his actions, 
he is ready and able to act with authority at a moment's notice in 
any transaction that will be for the advancement of the library. 
In other words, if the Librarian has been found satisfactory, the 
management should be left practically in his hands, even so far 
as the employment of assistants (with the approval of the Com- 
mittee), as no one should be better able to judge the worth of an 
employee. It is also important that the Librarian should be 


present at the meetings of the Committee, either as a member by 
virtue of his office, or by invitation, since from his general knowl- 
edge of affairs, his opinion or advice will always be of service. 
Under such circumstances the Committee is in constant touch 
with the Librarian, assisting and advancing his work by examin- 
ing the catalogues and new books which he should have ready for 
their inspection, recommending the books to be purchased, which 
is an essential point in a special library with a limited income. 

The rules for the government or management of libraries, 
whether general or special, are essentially the same; but to such 
special libraries as permit their books to be taken out the following 
suggestion is offered as an addition or amendment to "Rules for 
loaning of books" : A small printed slip is used in the form of a 
receipt, which must be signed by the member or one to whom 
he has delegated his authority by letter; these slips are arranged 
alphabetically according to the name of the member and are given 
back when the books are returned. If thought advisable, cards 
can be kept of books out, arranged alphabetically by classes, for 
the information of the desk clerk. This plan has been followed 
for more than a score of years in the Library of the College of 
Physicians of Philadelphia and every book accounted for. When 
calls are made by telephone, the books asked for are delivered by 
messenger and the receipt signed with no greater trouble than in 
receiving an express package or registered letter. It seems by 
far the most secure plan for a special library with a limited circu- 

I have a suggestion that is a matter of historical interest and 
value, chiefly, perhaps, to the Librarians of society libraries. In 
the Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia the hun- 
dreds and thousands of pamphlets and reprints received each 
month are classified on the same system as the books, and each 
class arranged alphabetically according to author; making them 
available, and of use, although not catalogued. I have made an 
exception to this rule which is the suggestion offered. Pamphlets 
or reprints received written by Fellows of the College are kept in 
separate boxes, arranged alphabetically according to the author 
and chronologically under the author's name. The Fellows are 
requested to make this collection as complete as possible, even to 
the extent of mounting articles clipped from journals where no 
reprints have been obtained, and, when the object has been ex- 
plained, the responses have been gratifying. When there are a 
sufficient number under one author's name the pamphlets are 


I l! \ki l , PERRY l ISHER. 

bound ill a volume, lettered (Brown — Reprints — 1899- 1902 — I) 
and placed on shelves. In several cases there are as many as five 
volumes under one author's name. In this way we obtain a per- 
manent and available record of a man's work, and while the value 
mav depend greatly on the individual, yet these collections are of 
use from a historical or biographical standpoint if from no other 
It is possible with some labor to obtain a fairly accurate list of a 
man's writings during the period covered by the Index Medicus, 
and the Librarian of a society's library who gathers together the 
writings of its individual members and has them bound will be 
repaid for his work by the appreciation with which it is sure to 
be received. 


nd Histoi n al J out not, i 


The Boston Medical Library 



Librarian. Hoston, Mass. 

In 1875, when this Library was founded, the books which a 
doctor needed to consult were scattered all over the city. The 
Society for Medical Observation had 1,000 volumes of periodicals, 
the Society for Medical Improvement had 500 volumes of periodi- 
cals, both kept in inaccessible places ; the Treadwell Library at the 
Massachusetts General Hospital had 4,000 or 5,000 volumes ; the 
Public Library 10,000 volumes. The use of the last two libraries 
was attended with restrictions, proper enough considering all 
things, but giving rise to much loss of time on the part of readers. 

A number of us young men decided that the time was ripe 
for the formation of a medical library as an independent institu- 
tion, under the control of the profession as a whole, which should 
bring under one roof the libraries of these two Societies and such 
other collections of books as could be secured. Accordingly an 
organization was effected, including 133 members. Dr. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes was chosen President, the writer Librarian, and 
Dr. E. H. Brigham, Assistant-Librarian, at a salary sufficient to 
command all his time. Two rooms on Hamilton Place were hired, 
in which were installed the libraries of the two Societies as loans. 

A catalog of these was prepared, and the Librarian authorized 
to make a series of raids upon all the private medical libraries of 
Boston, the result being that at the end of three years the asso- 
ciates had a library of 5,000 volumes, and several thousand vol- 
umes offered, for which there was no shelf room. 

Our success in bringing together a library and establishing a 
reading-room of current periodicals having been made evident, 
the Association appealed to the profession and the public for 
means to secure larger and permanent quarters. Our returns 
were so liberal that we felt warranted in purchasing the house of 
the late Dr. Samuel G. Howe, 19 Boylston Place; remodeling it, 
so as to construct a hall for the meetings of all the medical so- 
cieties of the city, the books being shelved around the walls of 
the hall. On the second story were reading rooms, and on the third, 
apartments for the Assistant Librarian and his family. In this 
building we remained for twenty-two years with ever increasing 
membership and rapidly increasing number of books, especially 
sets of periodicals, until our accumulations of volumes and 


pamphlets so far exceeded our accommodation* that finally we 
lunl 10,000 volumes stored in various places where they were ab- 
solutely inaccessible to students. 

In the early nineties the inadequacy of our quarters began 
to be apparent and there was a movement set on foot by the offi- 
cers of the Association to secure funds for better accommodations, 
but the panic of 1893 caused an indefinite postponement of any 

In 1898 a band of the younger men, who felt strongly the 
hindrance to their studies and researches by the fact that the re- 
sources of the Library were not available, started an agitation 
which the governing body of the Library welcomed and fostered. 
At that time the Library consisted of 30,000 volumes and 26,000 

The result of the agitation was the uprising of the whole 
medical profession of Boston and its suburbs. Committees were 
appointed to canvass the profession and its friends for money 
with such good effect that within a year the sum of $70,000 was 
raised by subscription which, added to the sum realized by the 
sale of our old building, and to other accumulated funds, gave us 
$110,000 with which to secure new quarters. 

With this sum in hand we purchased a lot of land, with a 
beautiful outlook on the city's park, The Fens, 75 feet wide by 
100 feet deep at an expense of $42,000, and put up a fireproof 
building which, furnished, cost $110,000. (See Plate 6.) Within 
the last week (February 27, 1903) the Association has voted to 
purchase the adjoining vacant lot of 3,000 square feet to provide 
for future extension. The contract has been signed and the deeds 
will pass during the present month. 

But few words are needed to elucidate the illustrations of this 
building. On the ground floor we have the usual cellars, fur- 
naces, janitor's room, fireproof vault, a room in which to unpack 
and arrange the books and put them on a dumb-waiter which will 
carry them to the stacks. On the next story, entrance on the 
front is into an octagonal hall, with a separate entrance from the 
vestibule into the directory for nurses, in connection with which 
is a suite of rooms for the registrar for nurses. Across the hall- 
way is a small cloak-room, a lecturer's room opening into the 
hall for meetings, which is 32 by 28 feet and will accommodate 
sixty to seventy people, a hall large enough for ordinary meetings 
of the medical societies. (See Plate 7.) We had a donation of 
$5,000 from Congressman C. F. Sprague and his mother to dedi- 







catc this hall tO the ttiemor) of Dr. Richard Sprague, who died in 
[892. ( )n the right of the entrance is a supper-room, with pantry 
and dumb-waiter from the kitchen helow. There is provision for 

an elevator. 

Basement Plan 


ti l < > n. a » > 

On mounting the stairs you enter Holmes Hall, the principal 
reading-room, a portrait of Dr. O. W. Holmes over the mantel- 
piece at one end, and a bronze bust of him at the other end. (See 



Plate 8.) There are alcoves of books, in each of which is a 
small table, where a man is partially secluded while doing his 
work. On the shelves are the books most in demand. The room 

First Floor FIar. 

1 1 4 6 8. » 12 rt 14 

is J2 feet long by 32 feet deep, beautifully lighted with 
big windows overlooking the Fenway. Its book shelves accom- 
modate about 6,000 volumes. To the rear is the librarian's room. 
The stack-room has five stories of stacks, each accommodating 

Medical Library and Historical Journal, T903. 

Plate 8. 

Boston Medical Library — John Ware Hall. 

ton Medical Library — Holmes Hall. 


13 1 

about 10,000 volumes. In the rear are the cataloger's room and 
a nx)m in which the current periodicals are exposed. Half a 
Story Up are toilet-rooms, a room for medical students, and 
another, the Fifield Room, for committee meetings. On the next 
story is John Ware hall which seats 300 men. (See Plate 8.) In 

Second Floor Plan 

on 1 t t e i> k n 
<** ** ~* -* -* ~* -* j 

the rear is another hall of the same size as Sprague Hall, for 
smaller meetings. 

We have a great many portraits of medical worthies by some of 
the best portrait painters of this day, including one of Dr. Samuel 
Dan forth by Gilbert Stuart. 

Just prior to the inauguration of this building, on January 12, 



1901, the Association received from Dr. H. R. Storer of Newport, 
K. 1., the gift of a remarkable collection of medical medals, num- 
bering 2,300 pieces, than which there are only two larger collec- 
tions in the world, that of Dr. Joseph Brettauer of Trieste, and 
that of the Army Medical Library in Washington. Our collec- 

Third Floor Pjlan 

Q) 2 4 b e P 12 4 ft 

Maaa mat mk 
tion is to be known as the Storer Collection of Medical Medals 
in honor of the late Dr. D. H. Storer, the father of the donor. It 
is exhibited on leaves, hung on hinges, round Holmes hall, by 
which arrangement the reverse of the medals may be freely 
studied. The portrait of Dr. D. H. Storer by Vinton, hangs above 
the card catalog case, in close proximity to the medals. Several 


hundred unv Specimens arc added to the collection annually by the 
original donor. Besides our library, now consisting of about 
35,000 volumes (of which more than 20,000 are periodicals) and 
30,000 pamphlets, we have a collection of medical autographs, 
numbering several thousand, and are beginning a collection of 
medical book-plates. 

Having thus sketched in the briefest possible words the early 
history and present condition of the Boston Medical Library I 
would dwell upon a few features of our career in order to guide 
and stimulate other corporations who are less far advanced 
toward the goal for which we are all striving. 

First, as regards our collection of books and periodicals, I 
am frequently asked how they have been procured with little if 
any expenditure of money. The ways were numerous, but all 
natural. We started with about 1,500 volumes loaned to us by the 
two Societies above mentioned ; with a list of these I personally 
visited every physician in town who was known to have a con- 
siderable library, and from these I solicited, and usually obtained, 
such as I wanted. From these sources I increased the library so 
that, at the end of the second year it numbered 6,000 volumes. 
The editors of the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal have 
given us for twenty-seven years the journals received by them in 
exchange, by which liberal succor we have been able to lay before 
our readers an abundance of current literature without expense 
to us. Of course a limited number of journals had to be secured 
by subscription to insure prompt delivery. The same course has 
been followed by the editors of the Annals of Gynecology and 
Pediatry since its foundation in 1887. From instrument-makers 
and drug firms we have from time to time received the accumula- 
tions of journals which they received gratuitously because of 
their advertisements. 

As soon as we had made it evident that we were meeting a 
long-felt want and were to be a permanency, we began to receive, 
as gifts or on deposit, the libraries of other associations, the Gyne- 
cological Society of Boston, the Boston Dispensary, the Roxbury 
Athenaeum ; more recently the library of the Harvard Medical 
School, exclusive of such volumes as were reserved for use in 
connection with its several laboratories ; the medical department 
of the Harvard College Library in Cambridge, etc. 

All the medical journal clubs, which subscribe for and cir- 
culate current periodicals among their members turn them over to 
us when thev have made the circuit. 


\ ery soon we began to receive, ai bequests or gifts of surviv- 
ing relatives, the libraries of all deceased physicians, among the 
most important of which I would mention those of Dr. Edward 
H. Clarke, Dr. John E. Tyler, Dr. George C. Shattuck, Dr. Ed- 
ward Jarvis, Dr. Calvin Ellis, Dr. R. W. Hooper, Dr. Samuel 
Cabot, Dr. John O. Greene, Dr. F. H. Hooper, Dr. T. B. Curtis, 
Dr. Edward Wigglesworth, Dr. O. W. Holmes, Dr. A. M. Sum- 
ner, Dr. W. C. B. Fifield, Dr. Edward Jacob Forster and many 

The completeness of our files of journals and transactions is 
largely due to a "want book," which has gone through three edi- 
tions in manuscript, wherein, upon the left hand page, is entered 
the title of every periodical of which we have any part, while on 
the opposite page is entered every volume or number needed to 
complete the file. By invariably carrying this with me upon my 
travels in this country and Europe, I have been able gradually, 
at a trifling expenditure of money, or by exchange with other 
libraries, to complete the files of all the leading periodicals of the 

Our aim has been to devote all our energy, and such small 
sums of money as could be spared from current expenses, to the 
department of periodicals as being the class of literature most in 
demand, especially since the publication of the Index Catalogue 
of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office, the Index Medicus 
and the Bibliographia Medica. We have over 20,000 volumes 
of periodicals as contrasted with 15,000 books, not including our 
duplicate library for home circulation, which numbers 3,000 to 
4,000 volumes of the principal periodicals. 

Finally, as to finances. For the first three years we depended 
upon the annual dues of 133 members at the outset and gradually 
increasing. In 1878 we raised by subscription over $10,000 with 
which we bought the house, 19 Boylston Place, remodeled it and 
found ourselves with a mortgage of $8,000, which was paid off 
three years later. In 1879 we established a Directory for Nurses 
from which there has been an annual profit of from $2,000 to 
$4,000. Since our removal to Boylston Place we have leased our 
halls to various medical societies for their meetings from which the 
revenue has been from $1,000 to $1,200 a year. Finally, in 1898- 
1899 we raised by subscription $70,000 with which we built, and 
moved into the present building, finding ourselves with a mort- 
gage of $25,000 on which the interest is to be met for five years 
by seventy of the younger members, and a second mortgage of 


$22,000. This year we have assumed another mortgage of $24,- 
000 for the purpose of purchasing the adjoining lot of 3,000 
Square feet and holding it for future development. A few funds, 
varying from $300 to $1,500 in memory of deceased members, the 
interest of which is devoted to the purchase of books, complete 
the list of our assets. 

Our membership now consists of 6 life members compounding 
the annual dues by a single payment of $150, 410 active members 
paying $10 yearly and 159 associate members paying $5 yearly. 

We have the utmost faith in the future, based on reasonable 
expectations, of being able to meet the obligations which we have 
assumed, in the near future. Last year's income from all sources 
amounted to over $10,000 and our expenses exceeded that sum 
by only $200. 

P. S. — Our faith is shown to have been well founded, by the 
official announcement made, while these pages have been going 
through the press, that our Library is a beneficiary, under the 
will of the late Robert C. Billings, to the extent of $50,000. — 
Boston, March 21, 1903. 


Assistant Librarian, Treadwell Library, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass. 

During the months just past, we librarians in Eastern cities 
have had a chance to appreciate one of the evils experienced to a 
greater degree by our confreres of the West, where soft coal is 
the chief item of fuel. With the exception of natural gas, it 
sheds the blackest, greasiest, stickiest, most penetrating kind of 
dust imaginable, and without constant care and watchfulness, 
books become literally choked with it, and one almost needs to 
don gloves before attempting to read. That "eternal vigilance" 
which is the price of all liberty, has here a chance for fullest 
manifestation, and this is the way it is exercised in one moderate 
sized library : 

The daily care consists in wiping with a dry cloth all the 
vacant shelf space, reaching in behind the books as far as possible 
without disturbing them. As the time is limited, this is all that 
can be done in the early morning before the room is occupied. 
Twice a week, an afternoon is given to dusting the edges of the 
shelves. A soft cloth is dampened by wetting one end, turning 


this end into the dry end, and wringing all together very tight. 
Then, with the left hand (which, of course, must be perfectly 
ili \ ) placed at the top of a book, the book is tipped toward the 
back of the shelf, while with the right hand, having the damp 
cloth about the fingers (not held in the hand), the dust is removed 
from the edge of the shelf and from under the book, which is 
then dropped back into place. If the volumes are small, two or 
three may be tipped at once. It may be argued that this will leave 
a damp shelf to which the book will stick, thereby injuring the 
edge of the binding. But care must be taken that the cloth is not 
too wet, and no trouble will ensue. Plenty of cloths must be pro- 
vided, they must not be too large, and they must be changed fre- 
quently. Of course, the books will slip out of line, but they can 
quickly be straightened when a whole case has been dusted, and 
the entire process takes much less time than one would imagine. 
Once a month the books occupying the lowest rows of shelves, 
where dirt and lint collect most quickly, are removed and with the 
covers held tightly together to prevent the dust from sifting be- 
tween the leaves, are brushed on their tops and backs with a broad 
soft paint-brush, and afterwards wiped all over with a cloth. At 
this time the shelves are washed, and perfectly dried before re- 
placing the volumes. As often as once in four months the upper 
shelves receive the same treatment. 

Then once a year comes the dreaded "house cleaning/' when 
the books have their annual '"shaking-up," shelves are removed 
and the inside of the cases thoroughly cleaned ; for this Library 
boasts of no modern steel stacks, but is furnished with old-fash- 
ioned wooden cases. After everything has been once more restored 
to place, each case is covered with a curtain made of heavy un- 
bleached cotton, which is tucked carefully in at all edges, and 
then the room is submitted to the hands of scrubbers and cleaners. 

This care, as partially herein described, has insured the safety 
of the books, given to the Library an air of freshness and cheeri- 
ness, and the books may be handled without fear of more than a 
shadow of grime on one's fingers. 






Subscription: In the United States and Canada, $2,00; In all other countries, $2.50 

(10 shillings; 10 marks; 12 francs). Single copies, 75 cents. 
Foreign subscriptions received by the New York Medical Book Co., London; 48 Old 

Bailey, E. C. Leipzig: Querstrasse 16. Paris: 174 Boul. St. Germain. 
Advertising rates furnished on application. 
Original papers and communications are solicited and necessary illustrations will be 

furnished without cost. 
Address all communications and make all remittances payable to the Medical Library 

and Historical Journal, 1313 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn-New York, U.S.A. 

Vol. I April, 1903 No. 




We venture to state that no work undertaken by the Carnegie 
Institute is of more practical value or of wider reaching influ- 
ence than the continuance of the publication of the Index Medicus. 
Its benefits accrue not alone to the advancement of a single special 
branch of science but also in a marked degree to the betterment of 
the physical condition of all mankind — and, if the phrase mens 
sana in corpore sano has a true significance, to the betterment of 
the moral and mental condition of the general public, as well. 
Through the Index Medicus the medical literature of the world, 
the record of every advance in medicine, is made available to each 
individual practitioner and through him to every individual com- 

It is through the generosity of Mr. Carnegie that the Index 
Medicus is enabled to resume publication. In itself, the Index 
Medicus is only a tool ; it serves only as a spigot to the vast reser- 
voirs of all contemporary medical knowledge, research and prog- 


the medical libraries. The direction of Mr. Carnegie's ben- 
efaction* in establishing libraries well might be partially turned 
toward the medical library field. The resultant benefits accruing 
to the present generation and to posterity would not be surpassed 
by any other kind of library benefaction. We cannot do better 
than quote from the recent writing of an eminent physician on 
the subject of the medical library and its relation to the community 
at large: "The author of the medical book, etc., undertakes his 
work to emphasize and demonstrate principles, to record cases, to 
make known discoveries and place on record success or failure 
of measures. These are educational, therefore, and form an im- 
portant part of the workers' equipment, who are thereby enabled 
to profit by the experience of ages, to avoid mistakes and utilize 
triumphs. The value of years of multiplication of such products 
is enormous and the number of valuable lives thus reflected by a 
large library is very great. Whom will it benefit ? has been asked 
on various occasions. It would be difficult to name those whom 
it will not benefit, indirectly at least. It is a workshop and con- 
sultation room for the graduate in medicine, bringing him into 
close touch with all records. His patients will thus profit by the 
best advice in the world. The undergraduate will use it as a study 
room. ... It will afford important assistance to the sanitari- 
an. Education, preservation and restoration of health will sum 
up its aim and object." 

Mr. Carnegie rightly believes in helping those who help them- 
selves. The medical libraries throughout the country have been 
formed largely by the resources of the physicians themselves and 
benefactions from outside the profession have been neither many 
nor large. The medical profession, as a class, is by no means a 
wealthy one, and contributions for the support and maintenance 
of medical libraries and the erection of suitable buildings commen- 
surate with the value of the collections reposed therein, have been 
at the cost of large personal sacrifice by the profession. Yet, to 
none other does the public owe so great an unpaid debt as to the 
medical profession. Hospitals, dispensaries and medical schools 
have received liberal bequests, yet the most important post-grad- 
uate school, the medical library, has been neglected. 

Mr. Carnegie, in his recent generous and well directed dona- 
tion of $50,000 to the medical library of the College of Physicians 
of Philadelphia, has opened up a fertile field of benefaction which 
we trust his inclination and sound judgment will prompt him to 



Few copies of the early contributions to medical literature 
written by Americans and published in this country are in ex- 
istence. From an historical standpoint these early American con- 
tributions to medical science are worthy of better fate than that 
which has attended them until finally and safely lodged in a cor- 
porate library. For the better and more permanent preservation 
of these valuable monographs, the Medical Library and Historical 
Journal has undertaken the reproduction of a series of these in 

The first to be published will be "The Abuses and Scandals of 
Some Late Pamphlets in Favour of Inoculation of the Small Pox, 
Modestly obviated, and Inoculation further consider'd in a Let- 
ter to A S , M.D. & F.R.S., In London," a mono- 
graph by William Douglass printed by Franklin at Boston in 
1722. Photographic plates of the book will be made in exact fac- 
simile and an illustrated prefatory sketch (historical, biographical 
and bibliographical) will be written by Lewis Stephen Pilch er, 
A.M., M.D., LL.D., the widely known medical bibliophile and 
editor of the Annals of Surgery. The issue will be strictly an edi- 
tion de luxe, limited to 150 signed and numbered copies, printed 
in the best style of the typographical art, on large paper and bound 
in gray boards. 

Numbers will be assigned in the order in which subscriptions 
are received. The price of each book will be $1.00 net, payable on 
delivery. After the limited edition has been printed the plates 
will be destroyed and the book will not be re-issued. 


In a letter to the New York Times Saturday Review of Books 
and Art, of Feb. 21st, Mr. William Austen supplied two addi- 
tional references to the literature of the book-worm; one in The 
Nation of April 16, 1896, and the other in the Popular Science 
Monthly of June, 1899. Dr. Thomas Windsor, the well known 
English bibliophile, in a personal communication, supplies another 
reference, O'Conor's "Facts About Book- Worms." 

We note these addenda to the bibliography of the book-worm 
for the benefit of those who read Dr. F. P. Henry's contribution 
to the subject in the last number of the Journal and who may de- 
sire these supplementary data. 



The Journal desires to extend its thanks to the medical press 
for the kindly reception accorded the initial number, and to all 
who have contributed toward its support by becoming subscribers. 
While the number of the latter is very gratifying, we desire to 
double our present subscription list and we solicit the interest of 
our present subscribers to this end. A practical way of doing this 
is for each one to send in the name and address of one or more 
parties personally known to be especially interested in the fields 
which the Journal is designed to cover. A larger subscription list 
will mean a better and enlarged journal in which every reader will 
share alike. 


Under the initiative of Dr. Peypers, the editor of Janus, a large 
medical historical society has been formed in Holland. Indica- 
tions point that America will not be far behind in forming a na- 
tional medical historical society. Attention was directed to this 
matter in an editorial in the last number of the Journal and ac- 
cording to the Medical News the suggestion is being taken up very 
enthusiastically. The close of the current year will probably see 
the establishment of such an organization on a broad foundation. 

The Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia is in 
receipt of $100,000, one-half of which was given by Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie. The funds will be applied either to the remodeling of 
the old building or to the erection of an entirely new structure. 
In the latter event, at least another $100,000 will be required. 

The Boston Medical Library has just received a bequest of 
$50,000 from the late Robert C. Billings. 

The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal has just completed 
its 75th anniversary and is the oldest medical weekly in America. 
The first number appeared on February 19, 1828, and the journal 
has been published weekly, without interruption, since that date. 
It has behind it a very enviable record of excellence which it ably 
maintains to-day. 



Tin-: Pkoit.kdincs OFTHECHARAKA CLUB. Vol. I. Limited Edi- 
tion. N. Y., W. Wood & Co., 1902. Front., 4 1., 97 pp., 18 
pi. 8vo. Price: Hoards, $3.00. 

The ( haraka Club was organized in 1898 by a number of medi- 
cal men "interested in the literary, artistic and historical aspects 
of medicine." Out of 27 papers read before the Club, 8 are pub- 
lished in the volume before us. The Club takes its name from 
the Hindoo sage, Charaka, to whom is credited the oldest extant 
work on the subject of Hindoo medicine. Appropriately, there- 
fore, Dr. B. Sachs' paper, "On Hindoo Medicine," is first in the 
volume. After commenting on the "Ayur Veda" Dr. Sachs por- 
trays some of the principles of Hindoo medicine and surgery to- 
gether with a sketch of the Hindoo physician. 

Dr. Frederick Peterson contributes three poems of which "En- 
vironment" is perhaps the best though the theme is far from new. 

Dr. Arpad G. Gerster's "On the Hippocratic Doctrine of the 
Injuries of the Cranium" is one of the best contributions the vol- 
ume contains. Dr. Gerster's point on the value of the historical 
retrospect is well put. Contempt for the ancient indicates an ob- 
tuse intellect. 

Dr. Joseph Collins' two incursions into the field of fiction are 
not above mediocrity ; mildly salacious without the saving leaven 
of wit or satire. 

"The Cult of /Esculapius; His Statues and His Temple" by 
Dr. Charles L.Dana is a valuable addition to the literature of medi- 
cal history. From various sources Dr. Dana has compiled an 
interesting (and as duly authentic as can be) sketch of ^Escula- 
pius, the Greek worship of whom dates from about 800 B.C. The 
many statues of him are described and illustrated by plates as are 
also the temple and sacred grove at Epidauros wherein the wor- 
ship of ^sculapius was carried on for 800 years. 

In lighter vein, Dr. Dana also contributes a paper on "The 
Evil Spoken of Physicians" in which he points out the antiquity 
of the origin of many of the jests and jokes made on the physi- 
cian which have done duty for centuries. One, "The physician is 
fortunate, for the sun exploits his successes, and the earth conceals 
his errors," is traced back to the fourth century B.C. How many 
times, with an occasional new twist, it has done duty since then ! 

The volume concludes with an essay by Dr. Ward A. Holden 
on "The Ophthalmology of the Greeks." 


The physician who has an interest in his profession outside its 
mere commercial aspects will find in this all too slight volume 
a singular charm at once restful and inspiring. To the receptive 
mind historical retrospect, when well presented, carries a mental 
pleasure distinctively its own. There cannot be too many books 
such as the "Proceedings," nor too many clubs such as the 
"Charaka." Of the volume itself we can only add — read it. 

History of Medicine: With the Code of Medical Ethics. By 
Nathan Smith Davis, A.M., M.D., LL.D. Chicago, Cleveland 
Press (1903). Port, front., 209 pp. Roy. 8vo. Price: Cloth, 

Dr. Davis, in the book before us, does not claim to present an 
exhaustive and voluminous history of medicine since he states in 
the preface that each chapter represents a lecture delivered before 
the senior class of the Northwestern University Medical School, 
the chapters being in the order in which the lectures were given. 
Yet, in these 209 pages, he has so condensed his material that he 
has covered the whole field from the pre-Hippocratic era up to the 
present day. In the process of elimination he has not neglected 
to bring out the salient points, and in style the volume is most 
readable. As a bird's-eye view of the history of medicine the 
book is above criticism. 

In chronological order, Chapter 1 deals with the pre-Hippo- 
cratic era ; Chapter 2 with Hippocrates and the five succeeding 
centuries ; Chapter 3 with Galen and to the end of the seventh 
century, A.D. ; Chapter 4 with the history of medicine from the 
seventh to the fourteenth century ; Chapter 5 with the fourteenth, 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ; Chapters 6 and 7 with the sev- 
enteenth century ; Chapter 8 with the eighteenth, and Chapters 9 
to 12 with the nineteenth century. 

This chronological order is the only feature which lends to the 
book the semblance of a "ready-reference" work. Though obvi- 
ously not designed for this purpose but rather for a "reading" 
book, the compactness with which the subject is covered makes us 
regret the more that a comprehensive index was not included. 
The history's value would have been increased a hundred-fold 
thereby and this defect, we trust, will be remedied in a second 
edition which the merits and low price of the volume warrant. 

Chapter 13 deals with the sectarian dogmas of the last two 
centuries and the volume concludes with a chapter on the origin 
and progress of medical ethics. On page 132 Dr. Davis states that 

hook REVIEWS. 143 

"perhaps the first of the society organizations in America to com- 
mence the publication of a separate volume of transactions was 
that of Massachusetts prior to 1800." This publication (1790) to 
which I )r. I >a\ is refers was antedated two years by the "Cases and 
Observations by the Medical Society of New Haven County, in 
the State of Connecticut" (1788). 

The publishers have done their part well and have issued a 
most attractive volume. 

Life and Correspondence of Henry Ingersoll Bowditch. By 
his son, Vincent Y. Bowditch. In Two Volumes. Boston and 
New York, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1902. Vol. 1 ; Port, 
front., vii, 337 pp., 7 pi.; Vol. 2; Port, front., 2 1., 397 pp., 6 
pi. 8vo. Price : Cloth, $5.00. 

The number of biographies dealing with medical men is by 
no means commensurate with the important part they play in pro- 
moting the welfare of mankind. It is with pleasure, therefore, 
that we take up these two sumptuous volumes devoted to the life 
of one of Boston's leading physicians. In excellence of typo- 
graphical appearance and illustration the work of the publishers 
is all that could be desired. 

Written by his son and incorporating many personal letters, we 
are brought into close touch with the man himself. This intimate 
acquaintance reveals the spontaneous affection and large heart- 
edness of Dr. Bowditch, whose austere New England parentage 
and early environment in old Salem left but slight traces of the 
stern and puritanical New England traits of character. Inherent 
love of frolic, of nature, of freedom and of country were boyish 
characteristics which attended him through life. 

Feeling himself unfit for the study of law or the ministry, and 
a commercial career being distasteful to him, almost with indif- 
ference he took up the study of medicine at Harvard Medical 
School under the chief instruction of Dr. James Jackson. In pur- 
suing post-graduate study in Paris under Andral, Louis and oth- 
ers, Dr. O. W. Holmes was one of his associates. It was in Paris 
that he wooed and won the love of a young English girl, but the 
engagement was broken on account of the opposition of his father, 
who feared his son's ardent, impulsive temperament might wreck 
his future by choosing so early one who might prove unworthy. 
This opposition being removed, several years later they were mar- 
ried, after his return and settlement in practice at Boston. 

His native love of freedom led Dr. Bowditch to enter unre- 

144 OX Kl-VIEWS. 

strainedly into the support of the Abolition cause, at that time 
very unpopular in Boston, and much of this biography is taken 
up with this phase of his activities. Boston was scandalized when 
he walked the streets arm in arm with Frederick Douglass and 
dined him at his home. Years later, at three score and ten, 
thrilled through with the same spirit, he followed Garibaldi 
through the streets of Geneva shouting and throwing his hat up 
in the air. So great did his sense of independence carry him that 
for a time he declined to join the Massachusetts Medical Society 
for fear of being bound by pledges he might desire to disregard. 

Notwithstanding his outside interests his chosen profession was 
always paramount in his mind and he rose to be one of the lead- 
ing physicians of Boston. He was the first to bring paracentesis 
thoracis into use and was instrumental in founding the Massa- 
chusetts Board of Health, of which he was the first chairman. He 
held many positions of honor in the medical profession and his 
letters on his various travels show a wide and intimate acquaint- 
ance with the leading medical lights of Europe. 

We have touched but lightly upon the contents of these two 
volumes so that their readers may enjoy the charm of freshness. 
The inner life of the great physician, his family life, his ambi- 
tions, his noble spirit, his professional and public achievements 
lie open to the reader with all their power of stimulus and inspi- 
ration. None can fail to profit therefrom and enjoy to the full 
the reading of this "Life." 

Dr. Bowditch's philosophy was not at fault when he said : "I 
often think I have done more good to some poor weary patients by 
sitting down and telling them of a delightful European experience 
than by all the drugs I have ever poured down their throats." 
The spontaneous touch of human kindness characterized his whole 
life. His associates came to him always confident of his sympa- 
thy, certain of kindly affectionate counsel, given never in any 
Pharisaical spirit, but simply as the expression of his earnest desire 
to lend a helping hand. 

Biographic Clinics: The Origin of the Ill-Health of De Quin- 
cey, Carlyle, Darwin, Huxley and Browning. By George M. 
Gould, M.D. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1903. 
Front, viii, 9-223 pp. i2mo. Price: Cloth, $1.00. 

In this meritorious study of biographic symptomatology, the 
author makes out a good case for astigmatism as a most probable 
factor in the causation of the malady of each of the distinguished 


sufferers. His error lies in his insistence that this alone is the 
COIiSe. Induction is a skittish steed to drive. Almost infinite 
coordination is sometimes necessary to make a safe induction. 
One's generalization must cover all particulars; apparent excep- 
tions must be explainable. Wide as is his experience, modest love 
of truth should have restrained his ardor into humility in pres- 
ence of the magniture of his generalization. 

The argued chapters are spicy and rich with important obser- 
vations and ophthalmologic truths and we have no quarrel with 
the author's enthusiasm in stating them. He does not emphasize 
too greatly the need of correcting ametropia, as demonstrated in 
"Responsibilities ;" but his overzeal in drawing taut the logical 
rein in one direction unfortunately has caused him to hold a slack 
rein in another. He has failed to make his steeds keep an even 
pace. To some extent it is the post hoc again; but more largely 
it is the petitio principii as seen in such phrases as "Insomnia is 
one of the most common and persistent symptoms of eye-strain ;" 
"The pained, exhausted look of eye-strain ;" "The reflexes of eye- 
strain," etc. The author cannot surpass us in esteem of Mitchell, 
yet we take exception to the viewpoint of his particular eulogium. 
Recently Mitchell himself has put a damper on the effort to carry 
too far the particular emphasis he laid on eye-strain, and even his 
views on causation in connection therewith are subject to re- 
vision. Two or more faulty conditions may have a common cause. 
One is treated, the other is relieved : the cause is untouched. Cor- 
rection of ametropia may relieve gastrodynia ; but the cause of the 
gastrodynia may be the cause of the ametropia. The author il- 
lustrates the fact of progressive ametropia by a foot-note in which 
he cites the case of a boy for whom he changed glasses frequently 
to correct an increasing ametropia and control the vomiting caused 
by it. Surely, Homer nodded here. For, if the correction of the 
ametropia was the all-important and only important thing, why 
did it not stay corrected? Because, and only because it was not 
the true causa causens. This is true in general as well as in this 
special instance. 

On the whole, Dr. Gould observes carefully and minutely; all 
the more can he not afford to make important slips in his logic. 




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i i LLIER, (> La Saute* du loldat Manuel dTftygiene pratique a Pu 

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Reznew of Neurology and Psychiatry. Editor, Alex. Bruce, M.D., 
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Wisconsin Medical Journal A. J. Patek, M.D., Editor. Vol. 1, 
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"Can you tell me where Einhorn's stomach is?" 
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Albany M. Ann. V. 10, No. 4-6, 9-12, 1889. 

Alienist & Neurol. (St. Louis). V. 1-16, 1880-95. 

Am. Gynaec. & Obst. J. (N. Y.). V. 18, No. 1-3, 5, 6, 1901; v. 1, 3, 5- 

Am. Gynec. Soc. Tr. V. 1, 1876; v. 3-date. 
Am. J. Obst. V. 6, 1875; v. 39, No. 3, 1899; v. 40, No. 2, 1899; v. 41, 

No. 5, 6, 1900; v. 42, No. 1, 2, 4-6, 1900; v. 43-date, 1901-date. 
Am. Pediat. Soc. Tr. V. 1-4; v. 6; v. 8-date. 
Ann. de 1' Inst. Pasteur (Paris). V. 1-14. 
Ann. Gynaec. (Bost.). V. 1, No. 12, 1887-88; v. 12, No. 12, 1898-99; 

v. 13, No. 11, 1-3, 1899-90. 
Ann. Gynaec. & Paediat. V. 12, No. 12, 1899; v. 13, 1900; v. 14, No. 1-8, 

Ann. Surg. (Phil.). V. 10-12, 1889-90; v. 13, No. 3, 1891; v. 23, No. 2, 

3; v. 25, No. 1, 3, 4; v. 18, No. 6, 1893; v. 19, No. 2, 1894; v. 20, 

No. 2-5, 1894. 
Ann. Anat. & Surg. Soc. (Brooklyn). V. 1, 1879. 
Arch. f. Kinderh. (Stuttg.). V. 1-17. 
Arch. f. klin. Chir. (Bed.). V. 24. 
Arch. f. path. Anat. (Berl.). V. 50, No. 2. 
Arch. Paediat. V. 2, 1885; v. 3, 1886; v. 4, 1887; v. 12, 1895; v. 14, No. 

10, 11, 1897; v. 16, No. 9, 1899; v. 17, No. 6, 1900; v. 18, 1901; v. 

19, 1902. 
Arch. Roentgen Ray. V. 1; v. 2, No. 2-4; v. 3, No. 2-4. 
Ass. Mil. Surg. U. S. Proc. V. 3, 1893. 
Bed. Klin. Wchnschr. All prior to July, 1885. 
Boston M. & S. J. (Bost.). V. 1-10; v. 11, No. 1, 3, 10, 22, 23, 24, 

26; v. 12, 1835; v. 13, No. 1, 3, 7. 9, 12, 15, 16, 19, 21, 22, 24; 

v. 14, No. 2, 5, 26; v. 15, No. 1-19; v. 16, No. 3; v. 18-19; v. 26, 

1842; v. 34-45. 1846-51; v. 52-53, 1855; v. 58-59, 1858; v. 64-67, 

1861-62; v. 80-93. 1869-75; v. 96, 1877; v. 99, No. 19; v. 105, No. 

12; v. 110-112, 1884-85; v. 115-116. 1886-87; v. 118-125, 1888-91; 

v. 134, 1896; v. 144, No. 14. 
Brain (Lond.). V. 1-15. 1888-92; v. 17-19. 1894-96; v. 16. 1878-79. 
Brit. Gynaec. Jour. (Lond.). V. 1-7, 1885-91; v. 9-1 1, 1895. 
Brit. M. J. (Lond.). 1868-81; v. 1, 1884; v. I, Jan. 15, Jan. 29, Feb. 5, 

Mar. 5. 1887; v. 2, No. 1384, 1386. 1388-93, 1895-98 and all of 

Dec, 1887; v. 1, 1888; v. 2. No. 1434, 1438, 1441, 1448. 1888; v. 1, 

No 1485, 1501, 1507-08. 1889, 1890; v. 1, No. 1567. 1568, 1575, 

1577-79, 1582, 1588, 1589, 1591, 1891; v. 2, No. 1648. 1661-1668, 

1892; v. 2, No. 1921. 1897; 1901. 
Buffalo M. & S. J. V. 1-36; v. 54. No. 9. 1899. 
Centralbl. f. Bakteriol., etc. (Jena). V. 22, No. 4; v. 15, No. 25 to end 

of v.; v. 1 -10. 



Centralbl. f. Chir. (Leipz.). All prior to 1895. 

Ccntralbl. f. Gynaek. (Leipz.). All prior to 1895. 

Chicago Path. Soc. Tr. V. 2 -date. 

Deutsche med Wchnschr. (Berlin). 1894, No. 7, 8. 

Glasgow M. J. V. 1-42, 1868 94 

Index Medicus. V. 5, index and title-page only; v. 6-13, 1884- 91; v. 

15, No. 5-12; v. 17, and index. 

Internal. J. Surg. (N. Y.). V. 1, No. 5-12, 1888; v. 2, No. 1-3, 6, 8 f 10, 

1889; v. 3, No. 6, 8, 1890; v. 5, No 1, 2, 1892; v. 14, No. 9, 1900; 

v. 15, No. 3-date, 1901. 
J. Applied Micr. (Rochester). V. 1. 
J. Cutan. & Genito-Urin. Dis. (N. Y.). V. 1-5, 1882-87; v. 11, No. 1, 

3, 8, 1893; v. 12, Feb.-May, Oct.-Dec, 1894; v. 13, No. 2, 4, 1895; 

v. 14, No. 1, 5, ii, 12, 1896; v. 15, No. 2, 8, 12, 1897; v. 16, No. 

3, 7, 8, 12, 1898; v. 17, No. 3, 12, 1899; v. 18, No. 6, 10, 1900; v. 

[9, No. 1, 1901. 
J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. (N. Y.). V. 7, No. 3, 1880; v. 14; v. 15, No. 1, 

1888; v. 16, No. 12, 1889; v. 19, No. 2, 3, 5-12, 1892; v. 20, No. 1, 

4-6, 7, 9-12, 1893. 
Lancet (Lond.). 1 836-42; v. 2, 1843; v. 2, 1844; 1845- 1865; 1867- 1869; 

v. 2, 1870; 1871-76; 1878-80; 1885-90; v. 1, 1892; v. 2, 1893; v. 1, 

1895; v - 1. 1896; v. 2, 1898, last number; v. I, 1899; v. 2, 1899; 

v. 1, 1900. 
Laryngoscope (St. Louis). V. 11, No. 6, 1901; v. 12, 13, 1902. 
Med. & Surg. Reporter (Phil.). V. 45, 72, 73, 74, 75. 
Med. News (N. Y.). V. 1-2, 1844; v. 58, No. 18, 1891; v. 59, No. 25, 

26, 1891; v. 63, No. 20, 1893; v. 76, No. 8. 1900; v. 80, No. 23. 1902. 
Med. Record (N. Y.). V. 54, No. 12, 23, 1898. 
Med. Rev. of Rev. (N. Y.). V. 1-5, 1895-99; v. 7, No. 6, 1901. 
Med. Standard (Chicago). V. 10, No. 1, 5, 1891; v. 15, No. 2, 1894; v. 

16, No. 1, 2, 1894; v. 17, No. 1, 1895; v. 18, No. 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 
1896; v. 22, No. 1, 2, 4, 1899; v. 23, No. 2-4, 9, 12, 1900; v. 24, No. 
7. 1901. 

Medicine. V. 1, No. 3-12, 1895; v. 7, No. 2, 11, 1901. 

Med.-Leg. J. (N. Y.). V. 1-8. 1883-90; v. 10-13. 1892-95; v. 14, No. 4, 

1896-97; v. 15, No. 1, 2, 1897-98; v. 17, No. 4, 1899-00; v. 18, No. 3. 

Miinchen. med. Wchnschr. V. 40. 1893, index only. 
New Sydenham Soc. Pub., Atlas illus, path. Fasc. 6-7, plates, 27-35. 
N. York J. Gynaec. & Obst. V. 2, No. 2. 1892. 
N. York M. J. V. 4, No. 20, 1866; v. 5, No. 2, 3, 1867; v. 19, No. 2, 3, 

1874; v. 55, No. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 1892; v. 61, No. 1, 3, 4, 1895; v. 69, No. 

12, 17, 1899; v. 68, No. 3. 4, 1898; v. 71, No. 23, 1900; v. 72, No. 

13, 1900. 

N. York Path. Soc. Tr. V. 2-date. 

N. York Weekly Drug News. V. 9, 1884. 

Ohio State Med. Soc. Tr. V. 1-55. 

Path. Soc. Phil., Tr. V. 6, 1875-76; v. 1 2-date. 

Pediatrics. V. 10. No. 5, 1900; v. 11, No. 9, 1001. 

Phila. Coll. Phys. Tr. 1st. & 2nd. series entire; 3rd. feries v. 5-date, 

Phila. Co. M. Soc. Proc. V. 7; v. 14, 1893; v. 15, 1894; v. 18-date, 1896- 

Practitioner. (Lond.). V. 53-date,i8p4-date. 
Sanitarian. (N. Y.). V. 1-4, 1873-76; v. 8-17; v. 34-date, 1895-date; v. 

30, No. 6; v. 32, No. 1, 2, 4; v. 36, No. 2, 3, 5, 6; v. 40; No. 4, 6; 

v. 43, No. 4; v. 46, No. 4. 
Semaine med. (Par.). 1894, No. 58. 71. to close of v. 
Schmidt's Jahrb. (Leipz.). V. 59-86, 1849-54; v. 149, 1871; v. 181-188, 

1879-1880; v. 216-date, 1888-date. 
Therap. Gaz. (Detroit). V. 24, No. 4. 5. 6. 7, 8, 9; v. 25, No. 7. 
Univ. M. Mag. (Phila.). V. 12; v. 11. No. 1-3; v. 1. 
Univ. Penn. M. Bull. V. 14. No. 5. 6. 


Wicn. mcd. Wchnschr. All prior to 1885; Jan. -June, 1895; Jan. -June, 


Am. J. Anat. (Bait.). V. 1, No. 1 3. 

Am. M. Ass. Tr. (Phila.). V. 3. 1X50; v. 4. 185IJ v. 6-8, 1853-55; v. 10, 

1S57; v. 27 1X70; v. 29-32, 1878-81. 
Arch. f. klin. Chir. (Bed.). V. 41; v. 42, No. 1. 

Arch. f. Ophth. (Berl.). 1887, Band 1, 4 missing; 1888, Band 4 miss- 
mi;; 1889. 
Arch. f. path. Anat. (Berl.). V. 60, No. 1, 3, 4; v. 61; v. 62; v. 63, No. 

I, 2. 
Bibliog. Med. Jan.. 1900. 
Boston M. & S. J. V. 4-6, 8, 9. 23, 27, 29, 32-35. 36, 37, 39, 40, 42. 43, 

45, 46, 48. 49, 50, 53, 56, 58, 61, 63, 64, 65, 68, 69, 72, 73, 78, 79, 80, 

82, 83, 84, 85. 
Ber. d. ophthal. Gesellschaft. (Wiesb.). 1889, 1893, 1895, 1897, 1898, 

Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. V. 10; v. 11, 1900; v. 12. 
Centralbl. f. Bakteriol. etc. Orig. & Ref. (Jena). V. 31. pt. 1. 
Centralbl. f. innere Med. (Leipz.). 1897. 1900. 
Chicago M. J. & Exam. V. 36, 1878; v. 38, 1879. 
Deutsche med. Wchnschr. (Berl.). 1895. 1896, 1897, 1898. 
Fortschr. d. Med. (Bed.). 1888, 1889. 1890. 1891. 
Hosp.-Tid. (Kjbenh.). 1900, 1899, 1897, 1884. 
J. Inebriety. V. 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. 
Lancet (Lond.). V. 2. 1884; v. 2, 1885. 
Med. News. V. for 1892-98. 

Med. News & Libr. 1867, 1868, 1869. 1877. 1878. 
Med. Rec. (N. Y.). V. 1, 1866-67; v. 16. 1874- 
M. Soc. N. Y. Tr. 1807-31 in 1 v.; 1858-88. 1896. 
Norsk. Mag. f. Laegevidensk. (Christiania). 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894. 
Phila. Co. M. Soc. Tr. V. 1-5, 1878-83. 
Sajous' Ann. V. 1-5, 1889; v. 1-5, 1893. 
Samml. klin. Vortr. (Leipz.). 1891, 1892. 1893. 1894. 
Tidsskr. f. d. norske Laegefor. (Christiania). 1894- 1897, 1899, 1900. 
Tr. Minnesota State M. Soc. 1881, 1884. 1891-1900. 
Verhandl. d. X. internat. med. Cong. (Bed.). V. 4, 1892; v. 1, 1891; 

v. 3, 1891. 

Ann. report of the supervising Surgeon-General of the Marine Hos- 
pital Service. 1893, 1896, 1897. 

Ashwell, S. Diseases of women. 2d ed. Phil.. 1848. 

Attfield, J. Chemistry. 8th ed. Phil., 1879. 

Bartley. E. H.. .Text-book of medical chemistry. 2d cd. Phil., 1890. 

Barwell, R. A treatise on diseases of the joints. Lond., 1861. 

Borner, P. Jahrbuch der pratischen medicin. 1887. 

Butler, 3. F. A text-book of materia medica, therapeutics & pharma- 
cology. 3d ed. Phil., 1899. 

Carpenter, W. B. Principles of human physiology. 4th ed. Phil., 

Dunglison, R. Dictionary of medical science. 7th ed. Phil., 1848. 

Dunglison, R. General therapeutics and materia medica. V. 1 & 2 
3d ed. Phil.. 1846. 

Dunglison, R. New remedies. 5th ed. Phil.. 1846. 

Ewald, C. A. Klinik der Verdauungskrankh. die Krankh. des Magens. 

Festschrift in honor of Abraham Jacobi. N. Y., 1900. 

Fischer, L. Infant feeding in health and disease, toot. 

Garrigues, H. J. A text-book of the diseases of women. 2d ed. 
Phil., T898. 

Hamilton, F. H. Fractures and dislocations. 3d ed. Phil., 1866. 

1 66 

0< I \ I ln.\ (-1 MEDICAL l.H'.KAKl 

Lever, J. C. Diseases of the uterus, 184.}. 

L i*>ton, R. Principles of surgery, ad cd Phil., 1842. 

Loomis, A. Lessons on physical diagnosis. 3d ed. N. Y , 1881. 

Morrow's Atlas of venereal and skin diseases. Nos. I, -', 6, 7, 8, 9, 

New Sydenham Soc. Pub. Atlas illus, path. Fasc. 12-13, plates 65-75. 
Nobilung-Jankau. Handb. der spec, therapie der prophylaxe. 18 
Penrose, C. B. A text-book of diseases of women. 3d cd. Phil., 

Roberts, J. B. Notes on the modern treatment of fractures. N. Y., 

Sargent, F. W. Minor surgery. Phil., 1848. 
Smitn, S. Doctor in medicine. N. Y., 1872. 
Smith, S. Handbook of surgery. 2d ed. N. Y., [862. 
State board of health of New Jersey. 25th report, 1901. 
Watson, T. Practice of physic. 3d cd. Phil.. 1844, 1849. 
West, C. Lectures on diseases of women. 2d ed. Lond., 1858. 
Wharton, H. Minor surgery and bandaging. Phil., 1899. 
Wilson, E. Human anatomy. 2d. Am. ed. Phil., 1844. 
Wood, G. Practice of medicine. Y. 1 & 2, 3d ed. Phil. 

Any library that can use a miscellaneous collection of journals will 
please notify the Manager of the Exchange, as several members of 
the Association can supply nearly complete sets of the following: 

Am. J. M. Sc. 

Am. Med. 

Boston M. & S. J. 

Braithwaite's Retrospect. 

Chicago Clin. Rev. 

Chicago M. Rec. 

Cincin. Lancet-Clinic. 

J. Am. M. Ass. 


Med. News. 

Med. Rec. 

Med. Brief. 

Med. Fortnightly. 

Med. Mirror. 

Med. Standard. 

N. York M. J. 

North Am. Practitioner. 

Phila. M. J. 


Therap. Gaz. 

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Judex Medicus and the Index Catalogue. 

P T I! I ) ( V : 


A Practical Treatise for Students, Practitioners, and Coroners' Physicians 



Pathologist to the Philadelphia Hospital and Sometime Director of the Josephine M. Ayer 

Clinical Laboratory of the Pennsylvania Hospital; Senior Coroner's Physician of 

Philadelphia; Pathologist to the Presbyterian Hospital; Prosector of the 

American Anthropometric Society, and Demonstrator of Morbid 

Anatomy in the University 0/ Pennsylvania 

Price, $3.00 163 Illustrations Some 400 pages 


1 903